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Title: 《搜山圖》抓妖圖像研究
A Study of Icons of grab devil in the Shoushas-Tu
Authors: 曾肅良
Tseng Su-Liang
Keywords: 搜山圖
Erlang God
grasping demons
Reising the Alms-bowl
Issue Date: 2009
Abstract: 摘要 《搜山圖》是一系列描繪抓妖圖像的敘事畫,主要以長卷的形式構成,描繪一群看似兇猛、像妖魔般的人物在長滿樹木的山林中作搜捕的動作,他們帶著獵鷹或獵犬,手持各種武器,捕殺藏匿於山林中的各種生物,這些被追捕的生物包括動物以及部分半人半獸的生物。 現存的《搜山圖》畫卷分藏於國內外各大博物館及私人手中,共有十二個版本之多,根據其抓妖圖像的組成,又可分為四大系統︰動物妖系統、女妖系統、混合系統、衍生系統。 擔任搜山工作的主神,學者多認為是二郎神,但根據不同版本《搜山圖》中主神形象的演變,不同時期的主神身分有所不同,先後包括了︰毗沙門天王、二郎神、關羽,甚至可能和鍾馗或其他受歡迎的神衹及傳說英雄有關。 《搜山圖》中各抓妖場景的來源有三︰一、原有搜山故事文本中保留的抓妖場景,二、受到其他熱門文本中妖怪情節影響,三、其他妖怪圖像的借用,如《揭缽圖》、《鍾馗圖》。 《搜山圖》畫卷之所以流傳千年不墜的原因之一,即是畫卷本身所具有的「固定性」及「流動性」,其一是抓妖場景的組成範疇固定,但畫家卻擁有高度自由的能力重新組織圖象;其二是搜山主神的地位及功能固定,但其角色身分的流動性卻造不同的造型表現;其三是畫卷固定表現「混亂」與「整頓」兩股力量,但整體的圖像意涵可以是歌頌抓妖者的功績,也可以是對被捕抓者的同情。
Abstract " Shoushas-Tu ", a series of narrative paintings about depicting grasping demons, are mainly in the forms of long scrolls depicting a group of seemingly ferocious and demon-like figures hunting in the tree-covered mountains. They bring hunting hawks, hounds, and hand-held weapons to kill a variety of hidden biological organisms, including animals and a part of half-animal orc. The existing " Shoushas-Tu ", twelve versions in total, are hidden both in the major domestic and foreign museums and private places. In accordance with the composition of grasping demons, they can be divided into four major systems: animal systems, female demon systems, hybrid systems, and derivative systems. Scholars pointed that Erlang God might be the main deity responsible for Shoushas works. However, according to the image evolution of the main deity in different versions of " Shoushas-Tu ", the identity of the main deity in different periods is different, including Bishamen Tianwang﹙Vaisravana﹚, Erlang God, Guan u, and may even Zhong Kui, famous deities, or other legendary heroes There are three main sources of all grasping scenes in " Shoushas-Tu ", to retain the scenes from the original stories, to be impacted from other popular circumstances, and to quote images from other monsters such as “Reising the Alms-bowl” and “Zhong Kui Tu”. One of the reasons that why " Shoushas-Tu " can be spread for a thousand year is the "fixity" and "mobility" in itself. Although the images of grasping demon are in the fixed compositions, the artist still has a high degree of organizing ability to freely redesign them. Besides, the status and function of the main deities are fixed, but the mobility of the roles has created a different performance. Then, although the scrolls have fixed performance with the "chaotic" and "rectifying" forces, the overall meaning of such images can be said to extol the merits of the grasping demons and the sympathy for the arrested organisms.
Other Identifiers: GN0694600139
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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