Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/114161
Title: 形構與置換中的觀看性
Authors: 袁金塔
陳坤德
Keywords: 形構
擬像
斑馬
本源
Configuration
Simulation
Zebra
Origin
Issue Date: 2001
Abstract: 本文在鋪陳上是以觀念的建構、累積為前導,進而去陳述它的現象。而貫穿全文以為重視的是事物的相遇所產生的差異性,這樣的差異性也是豐富作品存在(being)的最主要的因子。以下我們分段來述說: 1.形構與置換:本章主要以山水畫的主體性來突顯其作為山水畫現象所產生的問題。第一部份,我們談的是北宋山水畫中王維的形象性,經由目前傳稱的作品與史料的記載為參照,探討其風格的塑造與觀看行為的變遷﹔然而在這樣的環境之下,推敲其文人性格所顯露出來的詩意,投注在作品上來檢視「放逐山水、失意文人」的作品形象該有的樣貌或可能的母題為何?第二部份,在清朝初年,因為承認了山水畫的主體性,山水畫出現了所謂的「正派」。這樣的「正派」以四王的成就為標準,進而上推董其昌、元四家,甚至王維﹔種種可以為文人涵養的事或能逼近古人的作為,揭示所認定的「合法化」,這樣不禁讓人質疑那屬於自我的部份呢?因此,本文也不急著論斷孰是孰非,反而將重點擺在還原這現象去看問題﹔而發現王原祁,其實並非專以逼近古人為能事,反而是想從古人的成就與優點去往上推,開展出自身對於藝術的認為。而石濤對於自身的方式,則比較注重先還原創作者的感知於自然,注重涵養的功夫﹔在表現作品上則以那份感知作基礎而呈現。但是那些「正派」的追隨著,則是先豎立一個觀看的領域以為從事,這樣的藝術就矮化了那些原本成其為「正派」的藝術家的成就了。 2.擬像的推移:這一章所要探討的重點則回歸到作品的本身上﹔第一個部份是從揭露事物的本身開始,我們採取的策略是較接近於現象學的還原方式,將事物返回自身的本源去看作品的可能性﹔這樣的可能性是多於以著後設的現象為延續的藝術,我們在回歸之後注意到「本源」一詞,也藉助了海德格、老子對藝術作品的看法,認為當這樣的場域是呈現無遮蔽的狀態時,作品所開顯出的就比較接近於真理的情況,貼近於藝術的範疇。所以,回到事物自身讓所有事物所蘊含的意味清楚了也展延了它的場。第二部份,我們針對「擬像」(simulation)的虛擬本質所遮蔽的真實和捏造的作為推進到以符號來處理這被掩蓋的真實,然而作為一種符號來開顯是為了接觸到事物的本源。第三部份則關心到當虛擬成為一種習慣,那所謂的真實,還有作品中的圖像部份與文本之間有多少的差距,這段文章我們就以馬格利特的作品為出發以為表述。 3.作品賞析:本文排除了一般的書寫格式-直接論述作品的結構、空間、或運用媒材之類的方式。而是將作品之為作品的本源先行設定。首先,探討知覺的涉入,藉由梅洛龐蒂對於知覺的可見與不可見部份作表述,並且將觀察的對象還原為創作的主題-斑馬,來作構想﹔考慮它的身分、並藉由它的習性去推衍作品的向度﹔或參照於古代的馬呈現出它之間的差異,並且將這種現象歸屬於德希達所認定的「延異」(differance)狀態。接受歷史的變遷,並且呈現出這歷史變遷下的迷思。第二部份則屬於作品的陳述與聲明方面,本文分為二個主題,一是為什麼是斑馬?二是當斑馬不在?而關於作品的說明方面,則在每一件作品中分為二個部份來陳述﹔第一是,作品本源,直指作品的思想與成其為作品的緣由﹔第二則放在圖像簡述方面,談論這個思想的實現狀況。這是一種自我的檢定與期許。
I present my thesis first on the basis of constructing and accumulating ideas, and then try to narrate the phenomena. The main thought in context here is the difference produced by the coincidence of events, while this divergency is also the major factors of being. I distribute this treatise into the following chapters: 1. Configuration and Displacement: Under the title of the autonomy of landscape paintings, this chapter aims to show the problems of the phenomena in itself. For the first part, I am going to discuss the imagery of Wang-Wei in landscape paintings in Sung Dynasty. I consult the attributed Wang-Wei’s works and documents to examine the changes of his style and his meditative ways of seeing. According to his nature of poesy and of being a man of letters, what is the appearance or the motif of the works of this “expelled and dejected” artist? Concerning the second part, we know that in the early years of Ching Dynasty landscapes are presented “orthodox” due to the recognition of its autonomy. The orthodoxy here centers on the achievements of the four Wangs, and it can be traced up to Tung Chi-Chang, the four masters of Yuan Dynasty, and even to Wang-Wei. The cultivation and nostalgia of literati doctrine is thus justified. However, we may have doubts where the part of the “self” is. I am not eager to tell its right and wrong; on the contrary I want to put the point in question back to its origin. I find that Wang Yuan-Chi is not always indulged in nostalgia; in fact he wants to begin from the achievements and merits of predecessors and then expend his own philosophy of art. Regarding Shih-Tao’s art, he emphasizes the perception of the artist first, that is, the cultivation. And his presentation is based on this understanding. On the other hand, the followers of the orthodoxy set up beforehand the standard principles of seeing, and this instead degrades the real orthodox artists. 2. Transposition of simulation: This chapter will focus on the artwork itself. The first part starts from the disclosure of things. We adopt the approach like phenomenalism and try to restore the things to its origin. This possibility is more than that extends from the post phenomena. We notice the term “origin” after the restoration. Besides, by opinions of artwork of Martin Heidegger and Laotzu, that when things are submitted uncovered like this, they are closer to the truth and real art. Therefore returning to origin of things not only clarify its meaning but extend its circumstances. As to the second part, we aim at the virtual nature of simulation, its veiled truth and artificial actions and even its being replaced by a sign; however, it also serve as a vehicle for us to touch the origin of things. The third part concerns with the habit of virtualization. When we get used to virtual reality, I wonder the distance between the so-called reality, images (in works) and the text. I will explain this by demonstration of Magritte’s works. 3. Illustration: I exclude the general writing form, explaining the composition, spatial relationships and the use of materials. Instead I go direct to its origin. First, I explore the involvement of perception. I refer to Maurice Merleau-Ponty‘s visible and invisible perception and return the objects to the theme of zebras. I conceive its identification and take its nature into account to spread out various directions of my painting. Sometimes I compare with horses in ancient paintings and show their dissimilarities, and I attribute this to what Jacques Derrida have said the situation of “difference.” That is, to accept the transition of history and to present the myth of this change. The second part relates to narration and declaration of my works. It consists of two themes. The first one is why zebras and the other is about the absence of the figure of zebras. As to the interpretation of works, each has two parts: the origin, that is its thoughts and reasons as an artwork and second, the description of the picture in brief, also the real circumstances of its thought. This is for me a self-examination and expectation.
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