Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/114132
Title: 以書法藝術作為審美輔導教育之研究----桃園少年輔育院為例
Calligraphy as an approch to aesthetis guiding education : a case study of Tao-Yuan Guidence School.
Authors: 黃光男
王國川
張瑞香
Chang Jui-Hsiang
Keywords: 書法
審美
輔導
Calligraphy
Aesthetis appreciation
Guidance
Issue Date: 2000
Abstract: 論文摘要   本研究鑑於現代國人的書法藝術審美理論知識參差不齊,試從歷代與現代書法理論中,探尋諸多零散立論,且參酌近人所作實驗研究報告,了解書法藝術習作與創作有助於靜心澄慮、修身養性,擬從書法藝術審美輔導教學活動為出發點,探討所引發的作用與成效。   本研究的主要目的如下: (一)探討書法藝術審美輔導教學理論,設計適用於桃園少年輔育院學生書法藝術審美輔導教育的課程結構與教學策略。 (二)擬定書法藝術審美輔導教育的評量標準,作為評量桃園少年輔育院學生學習書法教學成果之參考。 (三)探討書法藝術審美輔導教育對桃園少年輔育院學生具有由審美教育入手,培養自主性快樂學書與定靜工夫的輔導作用。   本研究首先透過「文獻分析法」探究相關理論,並採用「準實驗研究法」設計實驗教學進行研究。主要研究對象係取自桃園少年輔育院學生實驗組一四○名、控制組七○名,共計二一○名學生。他們全部接受「書法藝術審美輔導教育測驗」之前 測與後測,同時實驗組一於課程結束之後,填寫「書法藝術審美輔導教育活動學習意見反映調查表」。   為期十二週的實驗教學結束之後,分別將蒐集的前、後測驗分數,使用單因子共變數分析及次數分配等統計方法,進行統計分析處理,另有團體觀察記錄、個別觀察記錄、學書答問,作為輔證,以驗證本研究之各種假設。   綜合本研究所得到的結果,簡要歸納約有下列幾項主要發現: 一、書法藝術審美輔導教學理論的探討方面: (一)書法藝術審美輔導教學包含書法批評、書法史、美學與習作、創作四領域之教學,各領域之性質與教學的模式經過分析探討,發現在書法批評與書法史二項領域的教學活動中,對於桃園少年輔育院的學生而言,以書法批評教學為基礎,配以書法故事的陳述講解,再進行書法 史教學較能提升同學自主性學書法的興致,尤其是寓教於樂的輔導活動,在師生教學互動中,已有增強習寫自信心,定靜等潛移默化的功效。 (二)書法藝術審美輔導教學結構與教學策略之相關研究分析方面: 1.課程結構:書法藝術審美輔導教學的組成要素包含學生、書法作品、教師、教學情境等;而課程取向主要是以書法藝術審美取向的學科為中心;教學活動設計則注重連續性、順序性與統整性;教學模式是以費德曼之描述、分析、解釋、評價四個程序來進行;另有輔導智能活 動的催化作用。 2.書法藝術審美輔導教學經常運用的教學策略有:觀察法、發問法、討論法、比較法、探究法、書法藝術審美結合創作法、輔導智能活動法、統合教學法等。不同的教學策略可以吸引學生的注意力,且提升學生的視覺感受與開放性思維能力。 二、有關書法藝術審美輔導教育能力的評量標準方面: (一)本研究擬定書法審美輔導教育能力的評量標準,其中包括: 1.學書認知能力:包括書法基本語彙、書法史常識的認知能力。 2.學書鑑別能力:包括書法基本語彙、書體常識的鑑別能力。 3.學書審美能力:包括各類書體、流派風格特色之審美常識。 4.學書輔導能力:包括接受書法藝術審美輔導教育後所得輔導成效之定靜能力。 5.學書技巧能力:包括書法習作、創作方面的技巧能力。 (二)書法作品不同流派風格的辨識能力:不同書體辨識能力、流派風格特色之認知、書法流派與書法家之辨識、流派風格特色之辨識、個人風格特色之辨識能力。其中包括: 1.不同書體辨識能力。 2.篆書不同流派風格書家作品辨識能力。 3.隸書不同流派風格書家作品辨識能力。 4.楷書不同流派風格書家作品辨識能力。 5.行書不同流派風格書家作品辨識能力。 6.草書不同流派風格書家作品辨識能力。   此評量工具,經過信度、效度分析,結果發現有顯著的相關,可見本測驗之評量標準與方式對於桃園少年輔育院學生書法藝術審美輔導教育能力的評量,具有適用性。 三、書法藝術審美輔導教學對桃園少年輔育院學生書法藝術審美輔導能力影響方面: (一)有關書法藝術審美輔導教育之學習成效   實驗組一學生的書法藝術審美輔導能力顯著優於實驗組二與控制組的學生,即表示採用書法藝術審美輔導統合教學法的實驗處理,對於書法藝術審美輔導能力有影響;而實驗組二與控制組之間也都有差異,但兩者的差異並未達顯著效果。 (二)書法藝術審美輔導教育學書認知能力分析   實驗組一學生對於書法基本語彙、書法史常識等認知,受到實驗處理之實驗組一學生對於書法作品之審美鑑賞能力受到實驗處理之影響而有所提升。 (三)書法藝術審美輔導教育學書鑑別能力分析   實驗組一學生對於書法基本語彙、書體常識的鑑別能力,受到實驗處理之影響有所提升。 (四)書法藝術審美輔導教育學書審美能力分析 (五)書法藝術審美輔導教育學書輔導能力分析   實驗組一學生因練習書法時數不足十小時,文房四寶不得發下自由使用經常習寫、輔導活動未能確實一一進行等因素,導致未能受到研究假設的支持。 (六)書法藝術審美輔導教育學書技巧能力分析   實驗組一學生對於書法習作、創作技巧能力受到實驗處理之影響有所提升。 (七)書法藝術審美輔導教育不同書體流派風格書家作品辨識能力分析   實驗組一學生對於不同書體辨識能力、篆書不同流派風格書家作品辨識能力、隸書不同流派風格書家作品辨識能力、行書不同流派風格書家作品辨識能力,受到實驗處理之影響有所提升;而楷書不同流派風格書家作品辨識能力、草書不同流派風格書家作品辨識能力因教學限制未能 受到研究假設的支持。 四、在書法藝術審美輔導教學活動的意見問卷的反映方面:   書法藝術審美輔導教學活動,從實驗組一學生在學習意見的反映問卷上看來,約有70%以上的實驗組一學生,對於書法藝術審美輔導教學活動均有正向的評價,可見此教學活動頗受桃園少年輔育院學生的接受與肯定。 (一)實驗組一學生,有70%以上認為自己在接受十二週的書法藝術審美輔導教學課程後,對於教學活動方式與作業練習覺得有變化,而且感興趣,也增加面對書法作品時思考判斷的機會。 (二)實驗組一學生,在接受十二週的書法藝術審美輔導教學課程後:有66.7%認為自我的感覺與信心有所增加;有48.3%認為會自主性練習書法;有43.3%認為會主動參觀書法展。研究者認為若能有長期的教學與習寫,意願相對會提高。 (三)實驗組一學生,在接受十二週的書法藝術審美輔導教學課程後:有86.7%認為自己的書法術語、語彙有增加;70%認為書法流派風格辨識能力有增加;68.3%認為自己寫書時會更有信心;66.7%認為自己用毛筆寫字的熟練度有所增加;更有80%認為自己的定靜程度已有增加 ,為「學書輔導能力」添加佐證。 (四)實驗組一學生在接受十二週的書法藝術審美輔導教學課程後;有50%希望能繼續加入書法藝術審美輔導教學活動課程;有68.4%認為自己會運用書法審美鑑賞的方法步驟來欣賞書法作品。可見學生們在書法藝術審美輔導教學活動中是頗有收穫的。 五、桃園少年輔育院院方擬於暑假正式聘約研究者擔任「書法藝術審美輔導教育」教師,有意廣為推廣書法教育。 六、最後,根據上述研究發現與相關文獻探討,對書法藝術審美輔導教學與未來的研究提出建議。 參考文獻……………………………………………………………215 一、中文部份………………………………………………………215 二、西文部份………………………………………………………219 附錄一 實驗組一書法藝術審美輔導教育教學課程大綱………220 附錄二 實驗組一書法藝術審美輔導教學活動設計……………223 附錄三 「書法藝術審美輔導教育研究」實驗教學申請書……235 附錄四 「書法藝術審美輔導教育研究」任課教師自述表……236 附錄五 (杜忠誥,民88)國立台灣師範大學「通識課程」     「書藝與人生」課程大綱………………………………237 附錄六 「書法藝術審美輔導教育研究」學生問卷調查表     預試卷……………………………………………………238 附錄七 「書法藝術審美輔導教育研究」學生問卷調查表     正試卷……………………………………………………246 附錄八 「書法藝術審美輔導教學活動學習意見反映調查表」250 附錄九 思想開闊,器度恢宏──陳振濂教授來台辦展、講學     綜合報導…………………………………………………252 附錄十 好性情,寫好字──專訪磊翁夫子謝宗安先生………267 附錄十一 處理衝突情境檢核表…………………………………273
#章=Abstract #本文英= In view of the inadequate knowledge of calligraphy aesthetics<I2> and theory nowadays in Taiwan, the purpose of this thesis is to demonstrate that calligraphy practice and creation help to stay calm and cultivate moral character from <I2> the research material of both past and contemporary calligraphy theories, along with <I2> recent experiment reports, and to explore its effects and results applied in the <I2> actual instructing activities of calligraphy aesthetics. #本文英= The main targets of this research are listed as follows: #1.英=  1.To inquire into the instructive theory of calligraphy aesthetics,<I2> and to design the instructive structure and strategies of calligraphy practice and appreciation education which are proper for the students of Tao-Yuan Juvenile Guidance School #1.英=  2.To draft the evaluation standards of calligraphy appreciation <I2> education as the references for the estimation of the achievements of calligraphy practicing <I2> courses #1.英=  3.To investigate the issue that calligraphy appreciation education <I2> also yields the positive effects of voluntary learningand concentration for the students<I2> of Tao-Yuan Juvenile Guidance School #本文英= The research deals with relating theories by means of "document <I2> analysis", and adopts the "accurate experiment methodology" to design the experimental <I2> instructive course. The objects of the study are selected from 140 students of the <I2> experiment group and 70 students of the control group in the Tao-Yuan Juvenile Guidance <I2> School. The total amount of experimented students is 210. They all took the preceding <I2> and succeeding tests of calligraphy aesthetics appreciation education, and <I2> all the members of the experimental group filled out the " Questionnaire of Calligraphy <I2> Aesthetics Guiding Activities". #本文英= After the experimental course for 12 weeks, I had collected <I2> the scores of both the preceding and succeeding tests, and dealt with these numbers through <I2> the statistic analyses of "common variables" and "frequency distribution", supplemented <I2> with the collective and individual observation records and Q&A of calligraphy-learning experience, in order to verify the various prepositions of my research. #本文英=  Synthetically, the findings of the research are listed as follows: #本文英=A. the instructive theory of calligraphy aesthetics education #本英3= (a) Calligraphy aesthetics education covers the guidance of 4<I2> major fields, including calligraphy criticism, calligraphy history, aesthetics and study, <I2> and creation. By analyzing the nature and instructive mode of each field, it <I2> is obviously shown that for these students in Tao-Yuan Juvenile Guidance School, to lecture the topic of calligraphy criticism with the support <I2> of anecdotes, and then proceed to the teaching of calligraphy history is a <I2> more probable way. It could encourage the students to learn calligraphy voluntarily. Especially in those activities which combine entertainment and instruction, students shall have more confidence in calligraphy-writing, and calm themselves imperceptibly in the interactions between teachers and students. #本英3=  (b) analytical research on the curriculum structure and strategy<I2> of calligraphy aesthetics education: #本文英=  1. Curriculum structure: #本文英=  The essential components of the calligraphy aesthetics education <I2> include students, calligraphy works, teachers and the teaching circumstances, and the orientation of the curriculum is the discipline-based of calligraphy aesthetics. Therefore, the importance of consistency, sequence and unity should be stressed in the design of teaching activities. Basically, Feedman's procedure of description, analysis, explanation and evaluation has been taken as the instructive mode. Besides, the catalysis effect of intellectual guidance activities have been added in the program. #本文英=  2. Instructive strategies: #本文英=   The instructive strategies include observation, interrogation, discussion, comparison, inquiry, combination of calligraphy appreciation and creation, intellectual guidance activities, synthetic instruction, etc. Different teaching strategies can attract students' attention, and strengthen their visual perception and broaden their thoughts and frame of mind. #本文英=B. Evaluative standards of calligraphy aesthetics education #本英3=  (a) The research aims to draft the evaluative standards of calligraphy aesthetics education, which include #1.英=  1.the recognition ability of calligraphy-learning, including<I2> the <I2> knowledge of basic calligraphic terminology and history #1.英=  2.the identification ability of calligraphy-learning, including <I2> <I2> the identification of the basic calligraphic terms and styles #1.英=  3.the aesthetic ability of calligraphy-learning, including the <I2> <I2> aesthetic knowledge of various calligraphy styles and schools #1.英=  4.the guiding ability of calligraphy-learning, including the <I2> concentrated ability acquired after taking the calligraphy aesthetics education #1.英=  5.the technical ability of calligraphy-learning, including the<I2> techniques of calligraphy studies and creation #本文英= (b) the identification ability of different calligraphy styles #本文英=  The research is also to develop the identification abilities <I2> of different calligraphy styles, stylistic features of different schools, <I2> and the unique personal styles of various calligraphers. #1.英=  1.the identification ability of different calligraphy styles #1.英=  2.the identification ability of different styles in seal character #1.英=  3.the identificationability of different styles in official<I2> script #1.英=  4.the identification ability of different styles in regular script #1.英=  5.the identification ability of different styles in running hand #1.英=  6.the identification ability of different styles in cursive hand #本文英= By the analyses of its probability and efficiency, the results <I2> of the evaluation have much in relation. Hence, it is fully proved that the evaluative standards <I2> and methods of this test are suitable for the students in Tao-Yuan Juvenile <I2> GuidanceSchool while evaluating their achievements in the calligraphy aesthetics<I2> education. #本文英=C. The influence of the calligraphy aesthetics education upon the #本文英=  students of Tao-Yuan Juvenile Guidance School #本文英= (a) Effects of the calligraphy aesthetics education #本文英=  The fact that the students of the Experiment Group 1 have acquired <I2> greater ability in calligraphy appreciation than those of the Experiment Group <I2> 2 and the Control Group indicates the truth that the application of integrated <I2> instructive method into calligraphy aesthetics education does have its<I2> influences on the guidance. Though there is discrepancy between the Experiment <I2> Group 2 and the Control Group, their difference is not so remarkable. #本英3=  (b) analysis of recognition ability in calligraphy aesthetics <I2> education #本文英=  The recognition ability of the calligraphic basic terminology <I2> and history for the students of the Experiment Group 1 has been raised <I2> due to the experimental courses. #本英3=  (c) analysis of identification ability in calligraphy aesthetics <I2> education #本文英=  The identifiaction ability of the calligraphic basic terminology<I2> and history for the students of the Experiment Group 1 has been raised <I2> due to the experimental courses. #本英3=  (d) analysis of appreciation ability in calligraphy aesthetics <I2> education #本文英=  The appreciation ability of calligraphic works for the students <I2> of the Experiment Group 1 has been raised due to the experimental courses. #本英3=  (e) analysis of the calligraphy-learning guidance in calligraphy <I2> aestheitcs education #本文英= As a result of some reasons, such as practice time less than<I2> 10 hours, the inaccessibility of the four treasures of the study and the <I2> sporadic performances of guiding activities, the prepositions of this research <I2> for the students of the Experiment Group 1 could not be fully supported <I2> and proven. #本英3= (f) analysis of calligraphic techniques in calligraphy aesthetics <I2> education #本文英= The techniques of calligraphic studies and creation for the <I2> students of the Experiment Group 1 has been raised due to the experimental <I2> courses. #本英3= (g) analysis of the identification ability of different calligraphic<I2> styles in calligraphy aesthetics education #本文英=  After the experimental courses, the students of the Experiment <I2> Group 1 have been able to identify different calligraphic styles, various <I2> styles and calligraphers in seal character, in official script, and in <I2> running hand. #本文英=  However, the identification ability of various styles and calligraphers <I2> in regular script and in cursive hand has failed due to some instructive <I2> restrictions. #本文英=D. reflections of the questionnaires made in calligraphy aesthetics #本文英=  education: #本文英=  Judging from the questionnaires made by the students of the<I2> Experiment Group 1 in the calligraphy aesthetics guiding activities, 70% <I2> of these students hold positive attitude toward the guiding courses, which <I2> shows that the instructive activities have won the reception and recognition <I2> of the students in Tao-Yuan Juvenile Guidance School. #本英3= (a) For the students in the Experiment Group 1, 70% of them have <I2> been fascinated with the rich instructive activities and exercises, and <I2> willing to think and judge in face with calligraphic works after the 12-week<I2> calligraphy aesthetics training courses. #本英3= (b) For the students in the Experiment Group 1 who have taken <I2> the 12-week calligraphy aesthetics training course, 66.7% of them feel <I2> their self- esteem and confidence increased; 48.3% of them claim to practice <I2> calligraphy voluntarily; 43.3% of them claim to visit calligraphy exhibitions <I2> voluntarily. #本文英=  The researcher suggests that under the condition of long-term <I2> teaching and practices, they should have much more aspiration for calligraphy. #本英3= (c) For the students of the Experiment Group 1 who have taken<I2> the 12-week calligraphy aesthetics training course, 86.7% of them claim <I2> to increase their calligraphic terminology and vocabulary; 70% of them <I2> claim to strengthen their identification ability of various styles; 68.3% <I2> of them claim to have more confidence in writing calligraphy; 66.7% of <I2> them claim to enhance their skill of writing by brushes; 80% of them claim <I2> to achieve the stability of the mind. #本文英=  These could best exemplify the slogan that "learning calligraphy <I2> gives guidance in one's abilities." #本英3= (d) For the students of the Experiment Group 1 who have taken <I2> the 12-week calligraphy aesthetics training course, 50% of them hope to <I2> continue this calligraphy aesthetics guiding activities; 68.4% of them <I2> claim to be able to appreciate works of calligraphy by the means of some <I2> calligraphy aesthetic perspectives. #本文英1=E. The authorities of the Tao-Yuan Juvenile Guidance School intend <I2> to appoint formally the researcher tothe position as "Teacher of Calligraphy Aesthetics Guidance" in order to promote the education of calligraphy practice and appreciation. #本文英1=F. Finally, based on the discoveries and concerning documents<I2> cited above, the researcher wishes to provide comments about the calligraphy aesthetics guidance program and her further study in the future.
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