Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/110816
Title: 日本帝國軍港在澎湖的形塑:衛生用水供給對馬公軍事地位的提升
The Development of Imperial Japanese Naval Base in Penghu: How Sanitized Water Supplies Strengthened Mako's Military Role
Authors: 張素玢
Chang, Su- Bing
饒維平
Jao, Wei-Ping
Keywords: 馬公要港部
軍用飲水
海水蒸餾機
馬公要港部水道
馬公水道
Mako Guard District
military water supply
saline water distillation equipment
drinking water pipelines in Mako Guard District
drinking water pipelines in Mako
Issue Date: 2020
Abstract: 1895年3月末,日軍在甲午戰爭進入尾聲時出兵佔領澎湖,為臺澎地區獨有的「日佔時期」,日本並在馬關條約簽訂時,要求將澎湖、臺灣及附屬島嶼割讓給日本,澎湖也為全臺最早進入「日治時期」的區域。日軍攻澎全程僅歷時3日,便佔領澎湖全域,然而真這的考驗才要開始。日軍在戰鬥過程中的陣亡人數屈指可數,但因澎湖水源匱乏,日軍衛生用水條件不佳,致使霍亂在軍中急劇擴散,最終導致千餘兵士病歿,使日軍意識衛生水源的重要性。 日軍正式統治澎湖以後,在澎湖設置軍事機構。其中以1901年升格的海軍「馬公要港部」,為日本帝國南方最重要的軍港;1903年設置的「澎湖島要塞司令部」,是衛戍帝國軍港的重要守衛,如此砥定澎湖的軍事組織構成。軍事單位的進駐,也使日軍對衛生水源的需求愈加迫切,驅使日軍進行一系列水源設施的發展與建設。 統治初期,各項設施百廢待舉,日軍難以在短期內尋得水源,故自日本本土徵調「海水蒸餾機」,供駐澎的海陸軍及澎湖廳相關單位用水。1905年日俄戰爭時,澎湖的軍事地位更加彰顯,來港補給、休整的海軍艦艇倍增,日軍擴增軍備物資貯量,增建大型「海水蒸餾機」,增加軍事補給的能量。水源供應量的提升,也使澎湖在日俄戰爭結束後,仍是日軍區域補給的重要據點。 「海水蒸餾機」的使用有其限制與缺陷,權衡之下不適作為唯一的水源供應設備,故日軍也積極設置「鑿井」,並在1912年興建「馬公要港部水道」飲水設施。隨艦艇來港日增,「馬公要港部」的水源設備日益發展,最終備有「海水蒸餾機」、「鑿井」、「馬公要港部水道」等3種水源設備交互使用,也使澎湖的軍事地位日益彰顯。 因來港艦艇的增加,海軍兵士大量進入澎湖,馬公市街作為澎湖的軍、政、商的中心,士兵的日常生活、休憩,自然也與馬公市街密不可分。為維護馬公市街的衛生環境,1927年起興建「馬公水道」,以國家的力量,扶持地方的衛生用水建設。 各項水源設施的完備,穩定「馬公要港部」的水源供應,使澎湖成為日本前進「南支南洋」的重要海軍根據地。「馬公要港部」軍事機能的提升,使其擔負中國沿岸1,200海浬的警備工作,擁有足夠艦艇守衛臺灣海域、執行海上救難與護航任務。水源設備的完善,不只防治疾病傳播,更促成澎湖軍事地位的提升,是「馬公軍港」成為日本帝國南方海軍根據地的重要條件。
Imperial Japanese troops mounted a military campaign and successfully occupied Penghu Islands at the very end of the First Sino-Japanese War in late March 1895, which led to the only Japanese Occupation Period around Taiwan and Penghu region. After the Treaty of Shimonoseki was officially signed, Penghu, Taiwan and the surrounding islands were ceded to Imperial Japan under their demand. The archipelago thus became one of the first areas entering the Japanese Colonial Period. The troops took only 3 days to occupy the whole archipelago, but the real challenge had just begun. Japanese battle casualties were minimal. However, due to lack of safe water, an outbreak of cholera shortly after the capture of the islands claimed the lives of more than a thousand Japanese soldiers. The outbreak of waterborne diseases enhanced the significance of safe water resources to the Japanese troops. Military facilities were established after they officially governed the islands. The upgraded Mako Guard District became the most important naval base in the southern end of the Japanese Empire in 1901. The Penghu Bay Fortress Headquarter, which established in 1903, was the essential barrier defending the base. By this time, the structure of Penghu's military organization thus settled. The settlement of military facilities meant the safe water supply became more urgent. This forced Japanese troops started to construct a series of facilities to provide safe water supplies. Lacking infrastructure, the Navy couldn't find adequate supplies of water source in a short term, hence they mobilized saline water distillation equipment from home islands to increase the scale of water supplies for the troops and the Hoko Prefecture. During the Russo-Japanese War in 1905, the military role of Penghu base became more crucial. The number of vessels seeking for replenishment in the harbor increased dramatically, forcing the troops to expand the storage capacity for military supplies. Large saline water distillation plants were constructed and the military logistic system had been enhanced. Due to the increased scale of safe water supplies, Penghu had become one of the essential military logistics centers after the Russo-Japanese War. The groups of distillation equipment were considered not to be the only facilities to provide safe water since they had certain limits and flaws. Japanese troops were also actively digging deep wells and building drinking water pipelines in Mako Guard District in 1912. The water supply system in Mako Guard District gradually improved along with the increased number of vessels in the harbor. Distillation plants, deep wells and the drinking water pipelines that operated in turns had strengthened the status of Penghu's military role since. Sailors also swarmed in Penghu islands with their ships, and since Mako town area was the military, political and commercial center of Penghu, their everyday life and recreation were closely connected to the streets.To maintain the local sanitary condition in the streets with national forces, the government started to build drinking water pipelines in Mako in 1927. The completion of various facilities had stabilized the water supply of Mako Guard District, allowing Penghu to become the essential base for the Imperial Japanese Navy expansion campaign toward South China and South Sea. Mako Guard District's improvement in military function led to its responsibility to defend the 1,200 NM long China coastline. The naval base had a sufficient number of vessels to achieve guarding, rescuing and escorting missions. The completion of safe water facilities successfully prevented the spreading of waterborne diseases and improved Penghu's military role. It was this sufficient condition that made Mako become the essential naval base in the southern end of the Japanese Empire.
URI: http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=id=%22G060527011L%22.&
http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/110816
Other Identifiers: G060527011L
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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