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Exploring Interpreting Competence Mindset of Student Interpreters in Taiwan
|Abstract:||心理學的「心態」（mindset）理論主張人們普遍具有兩種心態；第一種是「固定型心態」（fixed mindset），認為人的特質（如智力、語言能力等）是天生的、無法改變。第二種心態則是「成長型心態」（growth mindset），認為人的特質能夠改變、培養。心態不同，解讀事件的方式以及行為都會不同。例如若學生認為智力無法改變，也就是固定型心態，他們較不願努力學習，且遭遇學習挫折時韌性較差。但若學生相信智力能夠培養，也就是成長型心態，他們更願意挑戰自我的學習能力，面對學習挫敗時韌性較強。
本論文研究目的即是將心態理論和口譯能力、口譯潛質研究結合，透過問卷和個別訪談，檢視翻譯所學生的口譯能力心態，以及心態對口譯學習經驗的影響。筆者參考口譯潛質暨能力問卷（范家銘，2012），將智力心態問卷(Dweck, 1999)改編為口譯能力心態問卷。研究母群為全國翻譯研究所碩士生中修過口譯課的學生。本研究共收回70份有效問卷，結果經統計分析將受試者分為成長型心態（6 點量表中M≧4）、固定型心態（M≦3）、無明顯傾向（3＜M＜4）。最後，以最大變異抽樣法和立意抽樣，從三組受試者中選出8位學生進行訪談。
問卷統計結果顯示固定型心態學生比例（40 %）較成長型心態學生（21 %）多出兩成，剩餘學生則無明顯心態傾向（39 %）。從訪談和問卷資料，本研究將口譯能力心態重新定義為：個人是否認為努力能彌補先天口譯天賦不足。另外，從訪談資料也發現，口譯能力心態和對努力之信念、歸因、面對困境之反應、成就目標等學習動機過程相關；且口譯課堂強調表現目標，可能使學生從學習上分心，而練習方式也可能影響學生對口譯練習之動機。依據研究結果，學生應培養成長型心態，較有助於增強學習動機、進而產生正面之學習行為。|
The theory of mindset in psychology identifies two principal mindsets that people hold: a growth mindset, where one sees personal attributes as malleable qualities; or a fixed mindset, where one sees them as fixed entities. Mindsets can exert great influence over the holder’s behavior and understanding of the outside world. For example, students who see intelligence as something that cannot be changed (i.e. fixed mindset) are less willing to work towards improving their academic performance, whereas students who think intelligence can be developed (i.e. growth mindset) are more likely to accept challenges, as they view effort to be a key component to success. The purpose of the study is to utilize questionnaires and interviews to explore the interpreting competence mindsets of student interpreters (i.e. whether they perceive interpreting competence to be malleable or not) and how their mindsets might affect their learning experience. The researcher adapted Dweck’s mindset scale (1999) into an interpreting competence mindset scale by adopting the interpreting competence category developed by Fan (2012). The population of the study consists of graduate students of translation and interpretation in Taiwanese institutions who have taken interpreting classes. The results of the questionnaires divided the respondents into a growth mindset group (average score≧4 out of six point Likert scale), a fixed mindset group (average≦3), and a group that did not show a clear tendency towards either one ( 3＜average＜4). Eight respondents were then selected as interviewees by maximum variation sampling plan (Patton, 2002). A total of 70 valid questionnaires were collected. The results indicated that the number of fixed mindset students was 20% higher than that of growth mindset students, while as much as 39% of the respondents showed no clear tendency toward either mindset. Based on the questionnaire results and interview data, this study clarified the interpreting competence mindset to be whether or not an individual believes effort could compensate for a lack of natural talent. Moreover, according to the interview data, the interpreting competence mindset is also associated with four motivational processes: effort beliefs, attributions, reactions toward failure, and achievement goals. In particular, performance goals were found to be emphasized in the typical interpreting classroom, which could potentially distract students from interpreting learning. A student’s method of practicing interpreting techniques may also affect their motivation towards interpreting practice itself. The research findings suggest that interpreting students should foster a growth mindset towards interpreting competence in order to enhance their learning motivation and thereby their behaviors that are conducive to interpreting learning.
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