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The Effects of Haptic Feedback and Scaffolding on Elementary Students’ Augmented Reality-Based Learning
This study explored the effects of haptic feedback, scaffolding and prior knowledge on elementary students’ learning performance and motivation while learning from an augmented reality-based learning. The experiential learning model was employed to serve as a learning framework for the design of the "Brave Advent" augmented reality learning game. The participants were 224 fourth graders and the effective sample size was 201. A quasi-experimental design was employed and the independent variables were type of haptic feedback, type of scaffolding and levels of prior knowledge. Two types of haptic feedback were examined, including the force+kinesthetic feedback and the kinesthetic feedback. The scaffoldings included the strategic scaffolding and the procedural scaffolding. The levels of prior knowledge were the high prior knowledge and the low prior knowledge. The dependent variables included participants’ learning performance and motivation. The results revealed that (a) for the learning performance, in the kinematic feedback group, the procedural-scaffolding group outperformed the strategic-scaffolding group on the application performance; and in the procedural-scaffolding group, the kinematic feedback learners outperformed the force+kinesthetic learners on the application performance; (b) for learning motivation, participants showed positive motivation, and in the strategic scaffolding group, the force+kinesthetic-feedback group revealed higher degree of motivation than the kinesthetic-feedback group; and (c) as for the technology acceptance, participants also showed positive attitude toward the employed technology, and in the kinesthetic-feedback group, the procedural-scaffolding learners revealed higher degree of attitude than the strategic-scaffolding learners.
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