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The Effect of Graphic Organizer on Enhancing Metacognitive Strategies Use and Promoting Learner Autonomy in E-book Reading
Today, electronic books (e-books) are widely implemented in educational context. Language teachers intend to use e-books to enhance language learners’ reading comprehension because of its features of read-aloud function, animation, sound, music video, multimedia effect, and so on. However, previous studies indicated the weakness of reading e-book such as tired eyes, distractions, and lengthy information. In order to help learners read e-books, this study attempted to investigate the effect of graphic organizers on enhancing learners’ metacognitive strategies use and learner autonomy in an e-book reading environment. Eighty-seven sophomores coming from two classes were assigned to the self-generated organizer group and eighty-three were assigned to the ready-made organizer group. Both groups were asked to respond to the questionnaires of metacognitive strategy use and learner autonomy. Metacognitive strategy and graphic organizer instruction were given to self-generated and ready-made organizer groups for 4 weeks. Then, the self-generated organizer group was asked to create their own graphic organizers after reading each e-book. The Ready-made organizer group was required to read an e-book, download ready-made organizer, and fill in the information. Both groups were asked to bring their organizers weekly, discuss their metacognitive strategy use, and share the e-book reading content. In the end of the semester, both groups finishing at least ten graphic organizers were asked to complete the questionnaires of metacognitive strategy use and learner autonomy. The major findings were presented as follows. First, the learners who studied e-book accompanied by a self-generated organizer significantly outperformed the ready-made organizer group on the metacognitive reading strategies use, autonomous beliefs, and autonomous behavior. Second, the results of the paired-sample t-test revealed significant differences regarding the self-generated organizer group’s autonomous behaviors and metacognitive strategies on e-book reading after using self-generated organizer. Third, the ready-made organizer cannot help the learners improve metacognitive reading strategies directly, but it can significantly promote the learners’ autonomous behaviors. Based on the major findings, it is suggested that the training in metacognitive strategy instruction can enhance the learners’ reading comprehension in an e-book reading environment. Furthermore, the EFL instructors can use self-generated organizers to enhance the learners’ use of metacognitive strategy. Additionally, ready-made organizer can help the learners with lower language proficiency understand the relationships of each construct and employ the strategy of scanning.
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