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Comparative analysis of the working ability of persons with intellectual disability in three different service models
three different service models
Persons with intellectual disabilities receive a suitable service model according to their work ability and ability to live independently after leaving school. Persons with mild and moderately intellectual disability in Taiwan might be placed in Day-to-day facilities (referred to as small offices), sheltered workshops or supported employment services, of which the small offices belong to partially-burdened social welfare services, while sheltered workshops and supported employment are wage-earning employment rights maintenance services. The three service models form a continuous and staged service system, regardless of the type of service that people with disabilities will enter after leaving school, and the ultimate goal is that people with disabilities can move up their ranks and eventually enter a competitive workplace for stable employment. However, in addition to the clearer standards for "work skills", " independent living skills " and " work behaviors" was found to affect work performance of persons with intellectual disability and they might transfer-in or transfer-out depending on the those two performance. There have been few previous studies concerned the differences in independent living skills and working behaviors among persons with intellectual disabilities in the three service models, which may result in poor transition results. The purpose of this study was to explore the differences in " independent living skills " and "work behaviors" among persons with intellectual disabilities in the three service models. 20 participants in Day-to-day facilities, 17 in sheltered workshops and 17 in supported employment were recruited. Their independent living skills were measured with Scale for Independent Adult Life Transfer of Students with Disabilities (a self-report measurement) and work behavior were measured with Work Behavior Measurement Scale (measured by professional service personnel). Demographic data, such as sex, age, severity of disability, were collected. A multivariate covariate analysis was used to explore the differences in independent living skills and work behavior performance of the subjects in three service models after excluding the age and the degree of disablity. This study also conducted interviews with vocational rehabilitation professionals to gain an in-depth understanding of the key indicators affecting the placement of the three service models and the reasons for the improper placement of the target population at this stage. The results found that there are indeed differences in the independent living skills of the persons with intellectual disabilities in the three service models. There is no significant difference in work behavior except for general behavior. The placement model is also affected by personal and environmental factors. The key influencing factors include: personal work attitude, motivation to work, willingness to use services, judgment and cognitive ability, self-care ability, independent working ability, ability to use public transportation, communication skills , work skills and productivity, family support and family status. Reasons for the inappropriate placement of persons with intellectual disabilities include insufficient self-understanding, lack of readiness for employment, interpersonal interaction, premature aging, and environmental factors such as: professional problems, family problems, insufficient resources, and the functions of various service models are not clearly divided. Therefore, in addition to paying attention to the individual’s work skills, prevocational preparation, improving the service quality of vocational rehabilitation professionals, increasing family support, implementing the transition mechanism, establishment of sheltered workshops, and improving the health management capabilities of cases are all government units’ future challenges to disability management. The policy direction should be planned for each stage of transfer service.
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