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The Association Among Physiological Parameters, Temperament, Social Status, and Situation in Preschoolers
heart rate variability
|Abstract:|| 本研究旨在探討幼兒生理參數與氣質、社會地位的關聯，並探討不同背景（性別、年齡、家庭社經地位）的幼兒，在不同情境下（抑制情境、非抑制情境），其生理參數的差異。本研究以臺北市、新北市及桃園市選定之11家非營利幼兒園，滿三足歲（小班）及滿四足歲（中班）的幼兒為研究對象，共得有效樣本305份。研究工具選用「耳溫槍」測量幼兒的耳溫、「羅氏免疫分析皮質酮檢驗試劑」測量幼兒的唾液皮質醇數值、「emWave Pro HRV 心率回饋儀」測量幼兒的心率變異度、「ROSSMAX CF-155手臂式電子血壓計」測量幼兒的血壓（舒張壓及收縮壓），以評估幼兒的生理參數數值；再由父母填寫的「幼兒氣質量表」收集幼兒氣質資料；進行「照片式社會計量」分析幼兒的社會地位狀況；並以賽門說界定為「抑制情境」、靜聽音樂為「非抑制情境」，收集幼兒的心率變異度及血壓資料。所得資料，依研究目的進行分析，瞭解受試幼兒氣質、社會地位與生理參數現況；並探討不同變項下之幼兒生理參數的差異。結果顯示：
The purposes of this study were to investigate the relations among preschoolers' physiological parameters, temperament, as well as their social status. The study also explored the differences of gender, age, SES, in physiological parameters, temperament, social status, and inbibition/ disinhibition situation. A total of 305 preschoolers aged 3-5 year-olds from Taipei City, New Taipei City, and Taoyuan City, participated in this study. By using the ear thermometer, examining cortisol value with Elecsys Cortisal, measuring heart rate variability with emWave Pro HRV monitors, and taking their blood pressure by using ROSSMAX CF-155 Automatic Blood Pressure Monitor, the physiological parameters were collected. In addition, parents filled the “Behavior Style Questionnaire.” “Picture Sociometric Interview” was to decide the social status, "Simon Says" was defined as the inhibition situation and “Listening to Music quietly”was set as disinhibition situation. Finally, through the statistical analysis, the main findings were summarized as follows: 1.The associations among ear temperature, temperament and social status: (1)Preschoolers' right ear temperature is higher than the left ear temperature. (2)Preschoolers with pessimistic mood or lower persistence of temperament have higher temperature in their right ears. (3)Popular vs. rejected preschoolers, and neglected vs. rejected/average preschoolers, the formers have higher temperature in their left ears. 2.The associations among cortisol value, temperament and social status: (1)Preschoolers’ cortisol value is higher in the afternoons than that in the mornings. (2)Preschoolers with lower activity level have higher cortisol value in the morning. (3)Preschoolers with optimistic mood temperament have higher cortisol value in the afternoon. 3.The differences of gender, age, SES in physiological parameters, temperament, and social status: (1)Girls’ right-ear temperature is higher than that of the boys’. (2)Boys’ threshold of responsiveness in temperament is lower than that of the girls; Girls’ persistence in temperament is lower than that of the boys’. (3)4-year-olds are more than 3-year-olds in the rejected group; 3-year-olds are more than 4-year-olds in the neglected group. (4)Preschoolers from high SES show lower activity level than those from low SES. 4.The different physiological parameters in different situations, temperament, and social status: (1)There is no significant difference in physiological parameters between the inhibition and disinhibition situation. (2)In the inhibition situation, the preschoolers with high level of rhythmicity show higher HF of HRV; the preschoolers with low level of the threshold of responsiveness show higher pulse. (3)In the disinhibition situation, the preschoolers with higher approachability show higher SBP value than those with lower approachability; the preschoolers with middle level of intensity reaction show higher DBP value. (4)In the inhibition situation, there is no significant difference in physiological parameters among five social situations. 5.In the disinhibition situation, the popular group shows higher VLF of HRV than the controversial group. 6.In the inhibition situation, boys’ HF of HRV is higher than girls’; preschoolers from the middle SES show higher VLF of HRV than those from high SES and low SES. 7.In the disinhibition situation, girls show higher pulse than boys; 3-year-olds show higher pulse than 4-year-olds as well.
|Appears in Collections:||學位論文|
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