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Title: 幽默融入華語教材之需求分析初探
A Preliminary Study on Needs Analysis of Integrating Humor into Chinese Teaching Materials
Authors: 蕭惠貞
Hsiao, Hui-Chen
Cheng, Tsai-Ching
Keywords: 華語教材
Chinese textbooks
Preliminary study
Second language learners
Issue Date: 2020
Abstract: 幽默為一能使人發笑之言行(Martin,2007),此一言語行為是生活中不可或缺的一部份,但對於二語學習者而言卻是一個相當難跨越的坎。為此,許多學者進行了二語學習者與幽默理解或產出的相關研究(Bell,2002,2005,2007;Shively,2013;Davies,2003;Bell& Attardo,2010)。然而這在華語教學卻仍是個鮮少觸及的議題,因此筆者為了提升中文學習者對中文幽默的理解與產出能力,欲將幽默融入華語教材中。然而由於這個領域的研究並不多,因此筆者僅能先進行現行教材—《當代中文課程》、《新版實用視聽華語》與《迷你廣播劇》—的內容分析,以及師生的幽默經驗調查與需求分析。 教材分析發現三套教材的幽默皆出現於中級冊數中,《當代》的多集中於課文中,並以篇章方式呈現,《視華》的多透過漫畫以對話方式呈現,《迷廣》的則多位在句型例句中,以對話方式呈現。整體而言教材中的幽默並不多,且幽默內容並不等同於學者們所定義的教材趣味性。 學生的幽默經驗部分,其幽默失敗在產出方面以「不知道怎麼用中文說」最多,「我用幽默的方式表達了,可是他們覺得不好笑」次之;理解方面則以「雖然聽懂他們說的內容,但不知道他們為什麼笑」最多,「聽不懂他們說的幽默內容」次之。整體而言,學生幽默失敗的原因包含了:語言程度不足、流行用語涉及不夠,以及不熟悉中華文化。因此若要在教材中融入幽默內容,仍應以語言學習為主,且該幽默內容最好能在完整的情境中呈現,以提供學生有關使用該幽默的場合,以及該幽默背後的文化意涵之相關知識。 對於教材融入中文幽默一事,多數師生樂見其成,並提出各項建議。主題方面,學生大多偏好與其生活相關的;位置方面,師生皆偏好將其置於課文與插圖中;頻率方面,學生與教師多偏好「有相關主題再呈現」;呈現方式方面,師生皆認為應配合幽默內容及學生程度來決定應以文字或圖畫方式呈現;說明與否部分,多數師生皆認為需要搭配幽默內容的說明,教師與初級學生主張以中文說明,中高級學生則主張以英文說明;適合程度方面,教師與初級學生認為初級即可,中高級學生則認為中高級較為合適。綜合師生意見與前人研究,筆者建議初、中級的教材可多融入較「直觀」的文化幽默和認知負荷較低的視覺型幽默,中、高級的教材可多融入難度較高的文化幽默與語言幽默,而普遍幽默則可靈活運用於三個程度間。
Humor is an act to stimulate laughter or amusement (Martin, 2007). Although it is an indispensable element in everyday communication, it is also a significant barrier for L2 learners. Scholars have thus conducted research on L2 learners’ humor understanding or output (Bell, 2002, 2005, 2007; Shively, 2013; Davies, 2003; Bell& Attardo, 2010). However, there is little research in this field focused on Chinese learners, I, therefore, believe integrating humor into Chinese textbooks can possibly improve Chinese learners' comprehension and ability to generate Chinese humor. This study aims to fill literature gap in this field by analyzing humor contents of three textbooks - "當代中文課程 (A Course in Contemporary Chinese)", "新版實用視聽華語 (Practical Audio-Visual Chinese 3rd Edition)" and "迷你廣播劇 (Mini Radio Plays)", as well as conducting experience survey and needs analysis of teachers and students. The results of the textbook analysis showed that humor in these textbooks all remain at an intermediate level. Most of the humor contents in 當代, 視華, 迷廣 are presented in these respective occasions: articles, comic dialogues, and dialogues in grammar examples. In general, not much humor can be found in these textbooks, and the humor content does not correspond to what scholars define as “learning interest,” one of the fundamental principles of designing teaching materials. As for the experience of failed humor, in terms of output, most students stated " I wanted to express myself in a humorous Chinese way, but I didn’t know how then," and " I thought I had expressed myself in a humorous way, but people there didn't think that was funny." In terms of comprehension, most students commented, " I understood most of the vocabularies people there were using, but I still didn’t know why what they had said was funny," and “I didn’t get the humor that people were trying to convey to me." In summary, the main reasons for the failed humor include the insufficiency of Chinese and popular slang words and unfamiliarity with Chinese cultures. Thus, if Chinese humor is going to be integrated into Chinese textbooks, we still need to focus on language learning. Besides, the humor should be presented in complete contexts which provide students with knowledge of its occasion and the culture behind it. The majority of the participants not only supports the idea of implementing Chinese humor in textbooks but also provided some suggestions. In terms of the topic, most students prefer humor regarding daily life. In terms of location, both teachers and students prefer seeing them in articles and illustrations. In terms of frequency, most of the students and teachers prefer having humorous content when relevant. In terms of presentation, both the teachers and students believe whether the humor contents are presented “in text or comic” depends on the content itself and the proficiency of the students. In terms of explanation, most teachers and students think there should be an explanation of humor content. While teachers and students at the beginner level prefer Chinese explanation, intermediate and advanced students prefer English explanation. In terms of the appropriate time for students to learn Chinese humor, teachers and students at the beginner level claim that this should start at the beginner level, whereas intermediate and advanced students believe otherwise. Through the combination of students and teachers’ suggestions and related research, I believe that for beginners and intermediate students, it is more appropriate to present cultural jokes in straightforward or visual content; on the other hand, humor containing difficult culture or language knowledge is more suitable for upper-intermediate and advanced students. As for universal jokes, because students don’t need too much knowledge mentioned above to understand these jokes, they fit every level.
Other Identifiers: G060584001I
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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