歐洲文化在日本的歷史景點發展探究—長崎出島和蘭商館跡 Historical Sites Development of European Cultures in Nagasaki Dejima

Date
2020
Authors
陳彥妡
Chen, Yan-Xin
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Abstract
日本江戶時代鎖國期間唯一與世界交流、獲取海外情報的舞台,甚至為日本邁入近代化契機的「出島(Dejima/Deshima)」,在日本開國後因政策與工程導致扇形島型完全消失,但在1922年(大正11年)列為國家指定史跡,並於1951年(昭和26年)起長崎市政府開始計畫與執行出島復元工程,以期將出島復元至19世紀初的樣貌。出島自2006年起作為一遺跡與史料館開放民眾參觀,在以異國風情著名的長崎地位相當重要,它不僅是為遺跡與史料館,亦為一寓教於樂的休閒空間,平均每年吸引四十萬人前來一覽歷史的軌跡。 史料館為博物館的分支外,相當容易吸引文化觀光活動的結合。近年利用遺跡再現的建築與地域活化,並與觀光結合的案例增多,但截至目前以文化觀光學或博物館學等領域的出島研究鮮少。在本研究中筆者欲以文化觀光學、博物館學與社會學等領域知識及田野調查,自回顧日本與荷蘭這段期間的歷史脈絡,再分析出島的展示與文化觀光相關活動,以探究本研究之重點-出島如何以展示與文化觀光活動來詮釋傳入的歐洲文化、及日蘭文化之交融。除了期許突破現有出島研究領域外,在本研究論文的最後,筆者也欲透過分析試著發掘未來更多可能的研究方向。
Nagasaki Dejima (Deshima), a circular-sector artificial island which had been the only connection between the Western Europe and Japan for overseas information-gathering, exchange of economy, culture and academic knowledge during the Edo Sakoku Period (Period of national isolation). Moreover, it had played a prominent role when Japan entered the Modernization Period. After the seclusion, the original shape of Dejima island disappeared due to different policies and constructions, but it was listed as the National Heritage of Japan in 1922. In 1951 Nagasaki City Government initiated the “Dejima Restoration Project” to revive Dejima back to the early 19th century through maintaining the land and rebuilding the facilities of Dejima. Since April 2006, Dejima has opened for public not only as a relic but also as the Historical Museum in Nagasaki City where it has been popular for its diversity of cultures and history. Dejima is a both entertaining and educational space. It has attracted forty thousand visitors per year. Because of its unique positioning, the Historical Museum has created a great deal of opportunities the combination of Cultural Tourism activities easily. In recent years, cases of combination of heritages-restoration and Cultural Tourism activities has increased. However, Dejima studies related to Museology or Cultural Tourism are still in small amount. The author would like to analyze how Dejima demonstrates the imported European cultures and the cultural blending between Japanese and European cultures by display and Cultural Tourism activities in fields of Museology and Cultural Tourism Studies. In addition to achieving an academic breakthrough in the current research fields, the author also would like to discover more possibilities in extending future research directions.
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出島, 荷蘭東印度公司, 鎖國, 文化觀光, 遺產觀光, 博物館學, Dejima, VOC, Sakoku, Cultural Tourism, Heritage Tourism, Museology
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