無形文化遺產的再現–以利物浦之披頭四觀光為例 Representation of Intangible Cultural Heritage: A Case Study of Beatles Tourism in Liverpool

Date
2020
Authors
賴晏翎
LAI, Yen-Ling
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Abstract
  本研究旨在探討遺產觀光產業再現無形文化遺產的手法,以及在不同社群之間所產生的後續影響。近代由於後現代主義的發展與多元史觀的提倡,文化遺產的種類邁向了百花齊放的時代。在過去,遺產多著重於歷史意義及美學內涵上,現在則是傾向包容多元的價值。   然而,當文化遺產進入觀光市場時,文化遺產的內涵是否能夠真實地再現,或是為了迎合觀光、娛樂等目的而被誤現,都是備受討論的議題,對於帶有地方精神的無形文化遺產更是如此,在傳承的過程中,無形文化遺產的精神展現有助於凝聚地方的在地認同及歸屬感,若因觀光的緣故而不當地再現,很可能就此破壞了社群對地方的認同,更甚者,也傷害了城市的意象。   本研究以利物浦的披頭四觀光作為研究個案,將披頭四的流行音樂文化視為無形文化遺產,在音樂遺產觀光的框架底下,透過觀察法、質性訪談與文件檔案的分析等研究方法,討論不同的利害關係人對於披頭四文化再現的感知,對於文化與社會所帶來的意涵。此外,本研究亦試圖從城市的角度出發,檢視披頭四作為利物浦一著名特點,對城市品牌的打造及品牌意象之形塑。
This research aims at discussing the representation of intangible cultural heritage by tourism industries, and its subsequent impacts on different communities. Since the development of postmodernism and pluralisation of history have led to a growing appreciation of distinct types of cultural heritage. The principle of selecting cultural heritage has thus also changed; it now includes more aspects of multiple values. However, when cultural heritage comes into tourism market, it raises some issues debating about the effects tourism has upon it. Whether the authenticity of the cultural heritage’s historical content would be genuinely presented, or it might be misunderstood and misrepresented for the purpose of entertainment is the issue often being discussed. In addition, representation of intangible cultural heritage is another subject being concerned; especially those with local essence, the cultural manifestation from one generation to another would contribute to give people a sense of identity and continuity. But if misrepresented, it might affect community’s sense of belonging or even the external image of its region. Music heritage tourism in the United Kingdom is under such domain which this research would like to discuss. This research would probe the social impact music heritage tourism brings about, setting Beatles tourism in Liverpool as the backdrop of the study. By using observation, interview and related documents and seeing Beatles as an intangible cultural heritage, this research aims to explore how different stakeholders perceive the representation of the band’s culture and evaluate relevant implications of the issues in the field of culture and society. Moreover, this research would also discuss Liverpool’s city brand building and image shaping combining the strategy related to the Beatles.
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Keywords
披頭四, 城市品牌, 認同, 遺產, 觀光, Beatles, city brand, identity, heritage, tourism
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