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Titel: 沖繩居民的認同意識結構探究-以反美情緒之歷史因素為主要分析點
Structure of Okinawan Residents’ Identity Consciousness - With a Focus on the Historical Factors for their Anti-American Sentiment
Autoren: 林泉忠
林賢參
Lin, Chuan-Tiong
Lin, Hsien-Sen
莊享翰
Chuang, Hsiang-Han
Stichwörter: 沖繩人
琉球人
認同意識
民族主義
沖繩美軍基地
Okinawans
Ryukyuans
identity consciousness
nationalism
U.S. military bases in Okinawa
Erscheinungsdatum: 2020
Zusammenfassung:   關於沖繩研究領域中的認同意識主題,過往皆有許多從歷史、文化與血緣等因素進行分析的討論。而學者對於沖繩居民的反美情緒,通常僅是作為歷史或政治互動架構的說明工具,較少將其置入認同意識的情境中討論。因此,本文希望著眼於沖繩居民反美情緒的歷史因素,從沖繩居民反美情緒的脈絡起源、「沖繩人」與「日本人」認同意識的內涵,以及沖繩居民在反美情緒下的認同模式與結構等方向進行分析。   本文的理論動機源自民族主義中對歷史與血緣等要素構成民族的解釋,並進一步將民族與認同意識進行連結作為論述的架構。認同意識的建構,是先由歷史、文化或血緣等客觀條件建構出基礎的認同模式後,再經由某個情境的修飾與篩選,進而形成集體的自我認同,最終產生實質的認同意識。 從本文理論框架的角度來看,沖繩居民的基礎認同模式,源自生活上與當地歷史、血緣相關的各種經歷。此種基礎認同模式再經由對美國好惡感受的情境修飾後,最後形成實質的民族認同。以上述架構為基底,本文以觀察實例的方式,從歷史與血緣等要素對沖繩居民的認同意識進行基礎認同模式的建構,並加入反美情緒歷史因素的情境討論,在逐層分析的框架下,對沖繩居民認同意識的結構進行更為細部的分析。   對於本文著重的三個議題方向,由分析的過程與結果而論,首先,在沖繩居民的反美情緒上,此種情緒主要源自美軍基地相關問題的處理不當,並在日本的對沖繩政策與沖繩居民抗爭的激化下持續蔓延;其次,於認同意識的內涵上,無論認為自身為沖繩人還是日本人的認同意識,其中皆與歷史記憶、血緣或文化等因素密切相關,此類要素皆決定著個體對沖繩民族或日本民族歸屬感的強弱;最後,綜合前述兩個議題的分析結果,對第三個議題方向「沖繩居民在反美情緒下存在的認同模式與結構」進行討論,本文發現立場相近的認同意識,在與反美情緒的情境篩選下,可能因部分價值觀的差異,使各個認同意識在強度與偏向上產生不同程度的改變。
With regard to the subject of identity consciousness in the field of Okinawa studies, there has been much discussion in the past analysing it in terms of historical and cultural factors, as well as consanguinity. As for Okinawan residents’ anti-American sentiment, scholars usually treat it only as an explanatory tool of historical or political interactive frameworks and rarely discuss it within the context of identity consciousness. Therefore, this paper intends to focus on the historical factors for Okinawan residents’ anti-American sentiment, analysing it with regard to various aspects including the contextual origin of their anti-American sentiment, what constitutes Okinawan and Japanese identity consciousnesses and the identity model and structure of this sentiment. The theoretical motivation of this article is derived from the nationalist explanation of history and blood relations as key factors in constituting a nation. The study takes a step further by connecting the nation and identity consciousness to create the framework of its discourse. Identity consciousness starts from constructing a basic identity model based on objective conditions such as history, culture, or blood relations, after which such a model is modified and filtered by a certain context; this in turn forms into the self-identity of a collectivity that eventually produces a substantive identity consciousness. The theoretical framework of this paper assumes that the basic identity model of Okinawan residents originated from their various experiences in life that were associated with their local history and blood relations. This basic identity model was then modified by the contexts of their liking, or the lack thereof, for America, which ultimately formed into a substantive national identity. The study method involved observing examples. This paper undertook to construct the basic identity model of Okinawan residents for their identity consciousness in terms of such key factors as their history and blood relations, to which was added a contextual discussion of the historical factors for their anti-American sentiment. Under the framework of layer-by-layer analysis, a more detailed analysis of the structure of Okinawan residents’ identity consciousness was made. For the directions of the three issues emphasised in this paper, they were discussed in the process and results of the analysis. First, Okinawan residents’ anti-American sentiment originated from the mishandling of problems related to U.S. military bases and has continued as a result of Japan’s policies regarding Okinawa and the intensification of the struggle of Okinawan residents. Second, as regards the contents of their identity consciousness, whether the residents consider themselves Okinawan or Japanese, the contents are all closely linked with factors such as historical memories, blood relations, or culture, which determine the strengths and weaknesses of the sense of belonging of individuals to the Okinawan nation or the Japanese nation. Lastly, based on the synthesis of the analysis of the previous two issues, the direction of the third issue ‘the identity model and structure of Okinawan residents with regard to anti-American sentiment’ was pursued. This paper found that identity consciousnesses with similar positions, under the contextual filtering based on anti-American sentiment, might bring varying degrees of changes in different identity consciousness in terms of their intensity and bias due to differences in part of their values.
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http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/109875
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