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Title: 2008年燭光示威在韓國社會運動中的意義-運動型態與其影響
The Meaning of 2008 Candlelight Protest in Korea’s Social Movement-the Movement Type and Its Influences
Authors: 金恩美
Chin, En-Mei
Chang, Lin
Keywords: 社會運動
social movement
candlelight protest
Anti-U.S. beef protest
candlelight cultural festival
one-man media
Issue Date: 2020
Abstract: 燭光示威是一種和平的社會運動形式,大家一同舉著白色燭火上街表達自己的訴求。2000年代,韓國開始出現「燭光示威」形式的社會運動。較多人參與的燭光示威運動有以下幾個:2002年,抗議美軍裝甲車碾死女高中生的民眾上街舉行韓國首次的燭光示威,有五萬民眾舉著燭火在首爾光化門一帶參加示威運動;2004年的燭光示威是為反對國會彈劾盧武鉉總統而舉行;2008年則為反對美牛進口而爆發的燭光示威運動,運動期間也加入了其他議題,一同構築成2008年燭光示威的樣貌,此次燭光示威運動共計百萬人上街抗議。 上述燭光示威運動中,以2008年反對美牛進口的燭光示威最為浩大,除了以「燭光文化祭」的稱號走上街頭,此次燭光示威運動也改變了韓國人民的社會運動參與方式以及宣傳形式。首先,新興的網路與「一人媒體」(1인 미디어)成為此次燭光示威運動中重要的集結因素。發起此次運動的開端,是在一個需要會員資格的網路café裡產生,接著推廣到其他的社群媒體上,將網路族群整個串聯起來,從年輕人到中、老年人,都一同拿著蠟燭走上街頭;再來,隨著示威運動的進行,原本和平的集會卻因為網路、電視與平面新聞媒體誇大與兩極的報導,加上政府的不回應與強硬手段使示威運動也曾出現與警方對峙的激進色彩。2008年燭光示威運動落幕後,此次燭光示威運動的運動形成方式、意義與特色也影響到韓國之後的社會運動,受影響較深的是2016到2017年的倒朴燭光示威運動。 因此,筆者欲藉由分析2008年燭光示威運動隨著時間推移而發展出的框架與訴求的變化,討論2008年燭光示威運動的運動型態特徵,並總結2008年燭光示威對之後韓國社會運動的影響,分析韓國社會運動的新動向,並且舉受影響最深的2016~2017年倒朴燭光示威與同時期出現的太極旗集會為例。
The candlelight protest is a peaceful type of social movement. Everyone holds a white candle on the hand to express their request. In 2000s, the movement type- candlelight protest showed up in the South Korea’s society. The following are some representative candlelight protests : In 2002, People who was protested against the U.S. armored vehicles crushing female high school students took to the streets. About 50,000 people joined the activity at the Gwanghwamun area at this time. In 2004, the candlelight protest was been held for protesting to Congress impeachment of President Roh Moo-hyun. In 2008, the candlelight protest was for protesting the importation of American beef. Meanwhile, other issues had been also discussed at the same time. In this time, there are millions of people took to the streets. According to the candlelight protests mentioned above, the biggest one of the candlelight protests is in 2008. It had been called“ candlelight cultural festival” . Besides, it had changed the way Korean people involve in and spread out the social movement. First, network and one man media (1인 미디어) has become the important factors that people can be gathered together. The beginning of this social movement was created in an online cafe that required membership and then promoted it to other social media. The Internet community connected users together, from young people to middle-aged and elderly people, all of them were holding candles to the streets together. As the demonstration went on, the peaceful activity was exaggerated and extreme by the Internet. Television and print media, and the government's non-response and tough measures made the movement appear to be aggressive against the police. After the 2008 candlelight protest, the type. meaning and characteristics of the candlelight protest also affected the social movements until now. 2016-2017 candlelight protest had been affected the most. Therefore, I intend to discuss the characteristics of the movement type of the 2008 candlelight protest by analyzing the framework and appeal, which were kept changing in the progress of the 2008 candlelight protest. In the end, I summarize the impact of the 2008 candlelight protest on the Korean social movement, and analyze the new trends of the Korean social movement- taking the most affected 2016-2017 candlelight protest and the Taiji flag rally for examples.
Other Identifiers: G060583007I
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