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Title: 番語與手印:新港⽂書的清代歷史學研究
Other Titles: Fan Language and Handprint: Research of SinckanManuscripts in Historiography of Qing Dynasty
Authors: 李⽂良
Wen-Liang Lee
Issue Date: Dec-2018
Publisher: 國立臺灣師範大學台灣史研究所
Graduate Institute of Taiwan History
Abstract: 使用羅馬字母拼寫原住民語言而製作的新港文書以及添蓋有掌印的土地交易契約,是現存龐大清代臺灣契約中最引人注意的兩類。本文在方法上試圖將契約視為一個整體,來觀察兩類契約的關聯及其歷史意義。主要結論認為:新港文書與其說是為了保障作為賣方的熟番,毋寧說是買方的漢民;熟番在與漢民的土地交易中特別添寫番語,因此也就不是他們考量己身權益的自發行為,比較可能是18 世紀上半葉漢民面對官府日趨強化的恤番政策,以及隨之而來的頻繁糾紛,為了凸顯熟番自主賣地意願而來。「新港文書」反映的歷史並非原住民地權意識及其文化復興,而是乾隆朝積極的番地保護措施以及番界整備運動。正因為如此,面臨類似問題卻又在荷蘭東印度公司殖民教化之外的中北部熟番,就只能被迫使用更原始卻也因此被認為更接近其意願的手摹腳印,來展示他們典賣土地給漢民的自主意識。同樣的道理也是,現存新港文書的數量在乾隆朝達到頂峰之後,卻突然在接下來的嘉慶年間快速消失,造成其數量急遽轉折的原因,也就不是傳統研究所暗示的熟番文化衰落說,而是清朝的熟番保護政策有了變化,渴求土地資源的漢民們也找到了新的地權控制手段。這就是19 世紀的番屯制度,及以屯、隘制作為界外開發的新辦法。
Sinckan Manuscripts which use Roman script to spell indigenous languageand land contracts with handprint are two most attractive categories ofabundant existing Taiwan land contracts of Qing Dynasty. In the followingessay, contracts are being intently considered as an entirety in order to observethe connection and historic meaning of two categories of the contracts. Theconclusion points out that Sinckan Manuscripts do not ensure the profit ofseller, civilized aborigines (shu-fan), instead, it protects the profit of buyer,Han Chinese people. Civilized aborigines added Fan language in the contractsof land transaction between them and Han Chinese people in order todemonstrate that civilized aborigines did not trade the land spontaneously dueto their own benefits. Other possible reasons for Han Chinese people toemphasize the spontaneous behavior of civilized aborigines for selling the landby adding Fan language are because of the increasing protection of civilizedaborigines that was adopted by government and the following frequent disputesin the first half of 18th century. Sinckan Manuscripts represented Qingdynasty's aggressive aboriginal land protection and development instead ofcivilized aborigine's ideology of land rights and cultural renaissance.According to the fact, civilized aborigines in north central area which were outof VOC colonial control were forced to demonstrate their initiative of selling lands by using handprint and footprint. This kind of primitive way isconsidered to be closer to aborigines' willingness. Identically, the reason whySinckan Manuscripts vanished immediately in Jia-Qing period after becomingthe most popular application of the contract during Qian-Long period isobviously not the decline of civilized aborigines' culture what traditionalresearch implied. However, it was because the change of civilized aborigines'protecting policy that was adopted by government, and also Han Chinesepeople who desired the lands badly figured out a new method to manipulate theland rights. The new ways of reclamation beyond frontier was the aboriginemilitary colony system in 19th century and establishment of "Ai" and " T'un".
Other Identifiers: 310B6D93-B8C9-6DFB-F54D-4AAFBF1D0E6C
Appears in Collections:師大台灣史學報

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