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The Development of Jianpu Musical Notation by Documentary Analysis and Its Use by Teachers in General Education in Taiwan
general music education
一、十七世紀後半法國巴黎地區的修士蘇埃第 (Jean-Jacques Souhaitty, 1650-?)為了教導一般民眾及信徒唱聖歌而發明簡譜。在十九世紀中葉，經由法國醫生謝維(Emile Joseph Maurice Chev, 1804-1864)的推廣，簡譜在歐洲部分地區廣為人使用。
二、簡譜傳入日本始自西元1881年美國音樂教育家梅森(Luther Whiting Mason, 1818-1897) 指導伊澤修二及「音樂曲調掛」所屬人員編輯出版日本第一本小學音樂教科書《小學唱歌集 初編》。簡譜傳入大陸則始自清末民初留日學生曾志忞、沈心工及李叔同等引進，並改編日本學校音樂教材為中國的「學堂樂歌」於「樂歌」課中使用。簡譜傳入台灣始自日據時期日本人在台推行新式學校教育中的「唱歌」課。
Abstract This research aimed to explore the development of Jianpu musical notation by documentary analysis and its use by teachers in general education in Taiwan by questionnaire survey. The invention, adoption and spread of Jianpu musical notation were explored by documentary analysis, the situation of Jianpu musical notation used by teachers in general education in Taiwan and the reason and method of adopting Jianpu musical notation by questionnaire survey. Furthermore, the process of the teachers’ acquirement of Jianpu musical notation was explored. The questionnaires developed by researcher were distributed to 400 elementary and junior high school music teachers in Taiwan randomly selected by the systematic sampling in 2003. The results were as followed: 1. Souhaitty, Jean-Jacques (1650-?), Franciscan monk in Paris, was the first one to devise figure-notation, which was intended primarily as a means of simplifying the singing and teaching of plainchant. Chev, Emile Joseph Maurice (1804-1864), French physician, abandoned a medical career to devote himself to the development of a method of teaching sight-singing adopting figure-notation as “Galin-Paris-Chev method”. With his active propagation, the figure-notation was widely used in some extent in Europe in the 19th century. 2. Japanese have used the figure-notation since the L. W. Mason (1818-1897) introduced his National Music Course to Japan and developed the first school music textbook in Japan at 1881. Chinese have used the figure-notation since the students abroad to Japan introduced the Japan school music textbook to China and revised as school music textbook used in the singing class in the late-Qing period. Taiwanese have used the figure-notation since the Japanese introduced the Japan school music textbook to Taiwan used in the singing class in the Japanese-Occupied Period. 3. The French system of teaching sight-singing was based on the figure-notation which was modified and introduced by Pierre Galin, Aim Paris, Nanine Paris and Emile Joseph Maurice Chev was widely known as “Galin-Paris-Chev method”. 4. 80% of the music teachers in general in Taiwan used the Jianpu musical notation in class, because the students were unable to learn by the stuff notation. The teachers acquainted with the Jianpu musical notation mainly by choirs and Chinese Orchestra. The teachers used the Jianpu musical notation mainly on the curriculum of singing and playing recorder. 67% of the teachers used the Jianpu musical notation by the method of fixed-do. 74.1% of the teachers approved to use the Jianpu musical notation in the school music textbook. 67.3% of the teachers considered the staff notation paralleled with the Jianpu musical notation is beneficial for students to become acquainted with the staff notation. 75.5% of the teachers considered the staff notation paralleled with the Jianpu musical notation is more efficient than the staff notation merely for students.
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