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Title: 運動不可測性的存有之否定與掌握─塔雷伯與余蓮視野下的交會
Authors: 劉一民
Keywords: 掌握
black swan effect
Issue Date: 2014
Abstract: 在運動競技場上,比賽是瞬息萬變且令人無法捉摸的。大部分的人認為,勝負是在比較雙方誰對整場比賽掌握的多寡所決定,在練習時最簡單的掌握程序就是為選手針對比賽所設計一系列的課表,它們在抽象與現實上建立了一個模組,試圖宣稱掌握的能力,並嘗試著將此種掌握建立在自己、對象與情境三者之上。但是這種自我宣稱的掌握卻是相當脆弱的,因為當面對那看似不可能發生,卻一直在現實中發生著,且具有顛覆性的黑天鵝效應的攻擊時,選手極易動搖,且造成了一連串主體自我懷疑與否定的議題。當身在場中的選手因失去掌控權而陷入混亂時,教練總是會以「不要怕、要相信自己」之類勵志的話語激勵選手,但是,試問,這句話在當下真的有用嗎?以及,「相信自己」這句話本身,似乎有著要求選手返回自身的訴求,那麼,這一命題的提出,其目的究竟是要我們相信自己的甚麼?那又為何要去相信?本研究的主軸以「假掌握─真否定─真掌握」一系列的論述,試圖以黑天鵝效應為思路起點去分析運動場的模組與不可測性及其對主體造成的影響,以揭開主體的困境,反轉我們「自以為」掌握了我們生命的這一道假命題,從而轉向到對「否定」的探討,我們看到了主體改變的可能與存有那未被開發的神祕之境,以及假掌握反轉成真掌握的可能。此論文將話題圍繞在模組、善變與主體三者的關係,藉著繞道塔雷伯的《黑天鵝效應》及余蓮的《功效論》二書的觀點,揭發了原先存在著的認識論危機與西方思維的極限,以及在《功效論》此書所探討的另一端中國思維的這一面,看到了另ㄧ種觀看存有的態度,藉此解構隱藏在「掌握」議題之下的人與世界的複雜關係,以及主體在遭逢到不可測性的威脅時,其所擁有的存有意義。
On the sports arena, games are always changeable and unpredictable. Most people contend that victory is determined by what one can possess for the game between the two sides, and thus, the most simple way in practice is to grasp the procedure, and then to design a series of schedules for the candidates, which builds a model between the abstract and the real to claim the capability that one possesses, and which seeks to forge the grasping among the self, the object, and the situation. But the grasping is relatively fragile. The reason relies on the fact that one gets disturbed easily, which leads to a series of self-suspicion and self-negation, as he or she faces rare events that are beyond the realm of normal expectations—and this attack has the downrightblack swan effect. As the players lose their control and are fallen into chaos, the coach will always say encouraging words to them, such as Don’t be panicor Believe yourself.But we have to ask, Does it really work? Also, the sentence such as “Believe yourself” seems to ask the players to return back to themselves, but what on earth can we believe ourselves—and why to believe? This research begins with the drastic moment of the statement of “Believe yourself,” which demolishes the given evidence of knowledge, and tries to resolve the problems that incessantly emerge. The leitmotif of the thesis is the statement such as “quasi-grasping, true negation, and true grasping,” which seeks to analyze the model of sports arena and the structure of the ungraspable from the perspective of the black swan theory, and which discusses the subjective impasse intertwined between the two sides. This is made to turn and twist the quasi-thesis that we think we can grasp our life. Thus, to grasp becomes a deception. After delving into the quasi-thesis, we turn our discussion to negation, a notion from which we can see the possibility of subject’s change and the mysterious field undeveloped by being as well as the possibility of the grasping to be true. Thus, the thesis approaches the discussion thematically around the relations of the three sides: model, changeability and subject. Then, based on François Jullien’s separation between the oriental and the occidental, we employ Nassim Nicholas Taleb’s exhibition of the crisis of epistemology and the limit of the Western thought, as well as the other attitude to see being from the perspective of the Chinese thought. The two thinkers deconstruct the complex relations between the human and the world loomed under the issue of the “grasp” as well as the raison d’être as the subject encounters the unpredictable threats.
Other Identifiers: GN060130019A
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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