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The Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) instruction model promotion: The case of junior high school physical education teachers
Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU)
Physical Education Teacher
The purpose of the study was to understand how teachers promoted the TGfU instruction model at junior high school after participating professional development workshops. The study attempted to show the situations and find out some practical promotion problems in order to facilitate the TGfU promoting process in the future. There were fifty-three (N=53) junior high school physical education teachers as participants of this study, who had participated the professional development workshop in year 2006, 2007, and 2008. The survey was conducted by a questionnaire and followed by interview. The questionnaire data was analyzed by frequency distribution, percentage, and mean of descriptive statistic analysis and the interviews data were transcribed to verbatim. Based on the descriptive methods above, the following results were obtained: 1.Current situation of curriculum and teaching: (1) The 51 training teachers were affirmative to the TGfU instruction model and among 62.7% of them were implementing this teaching strategy. The reasons of opposite condition were lack of coordination of teaching programmed arrangement, facility, and equipment insufficiency, lack of support of school administration, lack of assessment methods and standards, and the low adaptability in classes. (2) The teaching contents were focusing on basketball, volleyball, badminton, and baseball/soft ball. The most of teachers were qualified in TGfU teaching sequences and also competent in group-guided discussion. Training teachers still needed to strengthen in the inquiry skill and designing in each ball game domain-knowledge. (3) In the teaching assessment, only advanced training teachers had variety and authenticity in their teaching and used revised GPAI as an assessment instrument. Moreover, most of entry-level training teachers were not familiar with the GPAI assessment instrument and standard, few entry-level teachers did not assess teaching evaluation. (4) Arrangement of the same type ball games course, because the school had its administration's consideration, thus the school was unable to coordinate. In addition, lacking of facility, equipment, and auxiliary teaching aids resulted in ineffective teaching outcomes and quality. 2.Aspect of training teachers perceiving learning outcome of students: (1) Students had increased learning outcomes in “the learning motivation, learning passion, understanding ball games rule, pondering and decision making, cooperative attitude, communication and listening attentively, tactic understanding, and tactical execution”. (2) Students had no significant learning improvement in “motor skill”. 3.Aspect of training teachers serving in school administration: (1) Funding from schools on purchasing equipment and auxiliary teaching aids was lacking. (2) The school administration office, director of department of physical education, and other physical education teachers should show more support to colleagues to the training teachers. Most of support showed was psychological support not substantive assistance in teaching, this led training teachers lose willingness and passion to teach. Change agents and change agencies could play a crucial role in these promoting processes. 4.Difficulty and issues that training teachers met: (1) Due to insufficient hours received during workshop, the ability of content design in non-specialty ball games was inadequate. (2) Teaching preparation, explanation of competition, and explanation of competition took too much time. (3) Insufficient facility availability, hours of unit, and two separated physical education classes each week did not favor implementation and promotion of the understanding type teaching. It affected the teachers’ teaching outcomes and students’ learning outcomes greatly. 5.Suggestions for future improvement from training teachers: (1) conducting different levels of workshops and teaching observations regularly in each district to strive teaching. (2) Developing simple assessment charts and standard and simplifying GPAI assessment tools. (3) Acknowledgement and award merit should be given to teachers who were active in promoting of TGfU in order to attract more physical education teachers to invest the understanding type teaching. (4) Constructing the understanding type teaching platform and uploading the complete lesson plan of each ball game. (5) Recommending promoting units cooperates and plans with Bureau of Education in County or City, and dispatching an official letter by the Bureau of Education to various schools to invite people to participate. Let more physical education teachers acquaint the understanding type teaching, so that the understanding type teaching could be wide spread.
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