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Biomechanics analysis of single- and double-legged drop jump in Taekwando athletes
|Abstract:||前言：跆拳道運動中下肢肌力扮演比賽的重要角色，因此慣用腳與非慣用之間的對稱性、肌力、爆發力與跳躍能力往往是影響運動表現的關鍵。本研究目的：藉由蒐集的生物力學參數，探討30公分高台深跳過程慣用腳與非慣用腳之差異。方法：本實驗以台灣師範大學跆拳道選手8名為研究對象，執行單腳以及雙腳雙手叉腰於腰間之高台著地垂直反彈跳 (Drop jump)方式進行實驗，並且使用10部Vicon高速攝影機 (250Hz) 以及兩塊Kistler測力板9281B型 (1000Hz) 蒐集蹬伸起跳期之動力學與運動學資料再以無母數統計方法之無母數魏克遜符號等級檢定分析，顯著差異水準定為α = .05，並以描述統計說明各參數之實驗結果。結果：一、運動學部分：單腳深跳之慣用腳與非慣用腳在作用時間、下蹲期、蹬伸期膝關節角度變化量以及騰空期之髖關節角度變化量，重心最低點膝關節角度、騰空期之時間變化量、騰空期之重心高度變化量以及跳躍高度有達顯著 (p<.05)；雙腳深跳之慣用腳與非慣用腳在下蹲期、蹬伸期膝關節與髖關節角度變化量以及重心最低點膝關節與髖關節角度、下蹲期之時間變化量有達顯著 (p<.05) 。
Purpose: Muscle strength of lower extremity is a very important factor in Taekwando competition. The symmetrization, muscle strength, power, and jump ability between dominant and non- dominant leg are the important keys of performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analysis the biomechanics differences between dominant and non- dominant leg during 30-cm height drop jump. Methods: Ten Vicon cameras (250 Hz) and two Kistler force plates were used to collect the kinematic and kinetic data of 8 Taekwando athletics drop jump performance. The Wilcoxon Sign-Rank Test was used to analysis the differences between dominant and non- dominant leg during drop jump (α= .05). Results: In kinematics, the ground contact time, knee angle at the lowest center of mass (COM) position, range of motion (ROM) at the knee joint during the squat period and stretch period, as well as the ROM at the hip joint, COM displacement and jump height during the flight period showed significantly different between dominant and non- dominant leg (p< .05). The ROM at the knee and hip joints and time period during the squat period and stretch period also had significant differences between two groups (p< .05). In kinetics, maximum ground reaction force and the rate of force development had no significant differences between dominant and non- dominant leg. But the impulse showed significantly different between single-leg and two-leg landing. Conclusion: The long term Taekwando training would affect the performance of muscle strength in dominant leg and none-dominant leg. It was suggested that athletes could enhance their training on the none-dominant leg during long term training to improve their attacking skill.
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