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Title: 五年級與六年級學生對「槓桿」之想法類型探討
An Exploration on Fifth and Sixth Grade Students’ Conceptual Patterns of Lever
Authors: 楊文金
Keywords: 槓桿
Issue Date: 2009
Abstract: 本研究的主要目的在於探討五、六年級學生對於「槓桿」的想法類型,藉由「槓桿原理之理解問卷」、「槓桿之判定問卷」的半開放式紙筆測驗,以及半結構式晤談來了解學生對於槓桿原理的理解情形,並歸納其對於槓桿的想法類型。研究對象分別為國小五、六年級學生各136人與133人,合計269人。研究發現如下: (1)六年級學生對「槓桿定義、轉動概念、轉動條件、名詞理解及效果判定」的理解,表現皆顯著優於五年級學生。 (2)五、六年級學生對於槓桿的判定,在第一類槓桿的表現並無顯著差異; 在非槓桿物體、第二和三類槓桿的表現,六年級學生顯著優於五年級學生。 (3)學生對槓桿之想法類型包括:外觀、施力、支撐、擺動、省力、類蹺蹺 板、三點共存、轉動八種類型。五年級學生常以施力、支撐、擺動的想法來判定槓桿,而六年級學生常以三點共存的想法來判定槓桿。
The purpose of this study was to explore fifth and sixth grade students’ conceptual patterns of the attributes that constitute a lever. Several potential properties related to lever were identified by literature review, and two semi-open-ended questionnaires were developed accordingly. Meanwhile, a semi-structural interview was also designed to in-depth explore the criteria students rely upon to judge whether a setting as a lever. The responses were furthermore classified. One hundred thirty six 5th graders and one hundred thirty three 6th graders participated in this study. The major findings are as follows: (1)As expectation, the sixth graders outperformed in understanding the verbal definition of lever, the meaning of rotation, the condition of rotating, the technical terms related to lever, and the time-saving/effort-saving judgment of different types of lever. (2)Regarding the judgment of a setting as a lever, these two groups of students performed equally in cases of the first type lever. However, the 6th graders did better in distinguishing lever and non lever settings, type two and type three levers. (3)The criteria students drawn upon to distinguish levers from non-levers include: the existence of an applying force, the existence of support (fulcrum), the static-dynamic nature of the setting (does the setting swing), the appearance of the setting, whether the setting is force-saving, is the setting similar to seesaw, whether the setting rotating, and the coexistence of pivot, exerting force and resistance. The first three criteria were relied upon by the 5th graders; on the contrary, the 6th graders depended heavily upon the last criterion. The implications of the finding in science teaching and learning materials were discussed and suggested.
Other Identifiers: GN0694450091
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