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An Exploratory Study of 10th Graders' Collaborative Problem Solving Skills and Interaction Processes in Solving Ill-Defined Problems
Collaborative Problem Solving
本研究採取個案研究法，以台北市某高中的一班高一選擇專題討論課的學生作為研究對象，總共13位，進行為期約一個月的研究。本研究的資料來源包含:小組討論的錄影、錄音資料、CWISE的線上作答紀錄以及紙本記錄單等。進行「分析歸納法(analytic induction)」的分析後，研究發現: (1)小組成員在後測時的對話內容多集中在跟任務有關的內容，非離題對話的比例均超過整個歷程的52%；(2) 問題解決的過程呈現出非線性及非序列的模式，後測時協作問題解決能力展現較前測進步的人較多; (3) 在前、後測時都發現成員能力展現的趨勢呈現類似的樣貌，即能力較高者傾向較快在任務力程中展現出高層次的能力，能力較低者則較慢展現；(4) 在互動模式的部分，前後測均少出現無反應互動（unresponsive），可能與小組人數安排讓互動可持續，整體而言，小組在後測時的互動層次是較前測高的；(5) 溝通行為在後測時都減少了程序性溝通行為而增加了任務性溝通行為，社會性溝通行為增減狀況則各組不同；(6)小組成員間的協作問題解決能力趨於一致時，互動模式為理想型，亦即成員協作問題解決能力都偏低或都偏高時，都會出現理想的互動模式，而小組成員間能力較為不同時易出現破碎型互動模式。本研究結果顯示所研發的協作問題解決教學活動在教師適時引導下，可提升學生的協作問題解決能力。但若教師不熟悉學生協作問題解決能力時，建議先以學生先前知識作為異質性分組的依據來收集學生能力的資訊後，再以能力做同質性分組來以有效促進小組的理想型互動行為。未來研究則可針對協作問題解決的不同面向或不同類型協作互動型式進行分析，並且深入探討學生特質和教學策略如何影響小組成員的協作問題解決能力。|
Recently, the collaborative problem solving (CPS) has been becoming more and more important. Our research aimed to discuss how students performed their CPS skills and peer-interaction processes when solving an ill-defined problem. Thus, the research purpose was specified as understanding the difference of students' CPS skills, the communication behaviors and the peer-interaction patterns in collaboratively problem-solving processes before and after the teaching activities of CPS. In the research, we selected one class of senior high school students (totally, 13 students) in Taipei as a case when we utilized the methodology of case study. The research period was one month. The data included videotaping and audiorecording of the team discussions, and the log files of CWISE (an e-learning platform called the “Collaborative Web-based Inquiry Science Environment”). After applying the method of analytic induction, we found that more team comminocations focuseed on task-related communications in the posttest (about or more than 52% of total conversation). The students’ solving-problem processes appeared as nonlinear and non-sequence modes. More students performed better CPS skills in the posttest than those in the pretest. In addition, the CPS skills of the teams appeared a similar trend in both prte- and post- tests; that is, those who had better CPS skills preformed the high-level ability in earlier period of their problem-solving process, and those who had poor CPS skills performed the high-level ability in its later period. For the students’ interaction patterns, there was no unresponsive interaction in both pre and post- tests because of the number of the group member. The frequency of the procedural communicatios decreased in both pre- and post- tests and more task-related communications appeared in the posttest, but the frequencies of the social communications were different across groups. When teamates’ CPS skills were similar, the interaction patterns tended as the type of the ideal interaction. When teamates’ CPS skills were different, the interaction patterns tended as the type of the broken interaction. Every group had reduced the frequency of the procedural communication behaviors in the post-test. Therefore, the collaboratively problem-solving instruction designed by this study could promote students’ CPS skills under teachers’ timely guidance. It is suggested to use the heterogeneous grouping according to student prior knowledge when a teacher is not familiar with students’ CPS skills. In the future, more studies are needed to explore the aspects of problem solving and the types of interaction patterns, and focus more on how CPS skills are influenced by students’ characteristics or teachers’ teaching styles.
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