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Title: 平安時代平安宮儀式空間之探討──以9世紀儀式書《貞觀儀式》切入
The Ritual Space in the Heian Palace during the Heian Period: A Study on the Ritual Book Jogan Gishiki
Authors: 福田美穗
Keywords: 儀式空間
ritual space
the Heian Period
the Heian Palace
Jogan gishiki
Issue Date: 2015
Abstract: 平安時代(794-1192),密切與唐朝的交流,在此潮流之下,當時日本的政治、文化、建築多方面可見學習唐朝的跡象。9世紀後,政治體系則有轉變,變為大臣輔政的攝關政治。本文之目標,即為探討在此變化下,平安宮中儀式空間的轉變。 平安時代開始,除了史書,尚可見到儀式書的所留下的儀式相關紀錄,儀式書中詳細記載了當時宮中各儀式之流程。目前,由儀式書來分析儀式空間的儀式相關研究較少,然而,鑒於儀式空間與平安宮空間關連密切,因此,此研究將以儀式書的人員移動紀錄,分析平安宮的儀式空間。本文由9世紀儀式書《貞觀儀式》為切入點,探討此書中之人員參入的方式,可分為三種儀式空間系統,分別為:南北軸入儀式空間系統、東西軸入儀式空間系統與東入南北軸儀式空間系統。由儀式的歸納,南北軸入儀式空間系統為天皇宣示自身時使用,東西軸入儀式空間系統則多用於進獻天皇的儀式,東入南北軸儀式空間系統則多用於饗宴儀式。由此三個儀式空間系統的人員參入,天皇使用南北軸,東方、東西軸多為身分高之官員進入,可見到當時南北軸與東西軸有不同的應用方式。並且,由9世紀後的儀式書《西宮記》、《江家次第》紀錄,南北軸儀式系統之儀式減少,更見東西軸的儀式空間與東方漸受重視。從分析9世紀儀式書的記載,以及比較9世紀後儀式空間使用的轉變,藉此討論平安時代平安宮中儀式空間的特性。 由上述分析,可得知平安宮儀式空間的以下特性:第一,從9世紀的記載,由地位高人員參入方向,可知當時應重視東方。第二,從平安宮中儀式空間的變化,南北軸儀式空間系統的儀式數量減少,可知東西軸儀式空間至9世紀後,逐漸受到重視。
Several ritual books were edited during the Heian Period (794-1192) in Japan. Most of the rituals were mainly performed in imperial palace, the Heian Palace. The Jogan Gichiki (The Rituals in the Jogan Era), which is one of the ritual books, is thought be written in the 9th century, and is important because of describing the court rituals at that time. Court rituals should be an important research theme for architectural history, because they are related to palace architecture directly. However, there is no enough quantity of research on them. Therefore, this paper analyzes the procedures of the rituals in The Rituals in Jogan Era. It also clarifies that the Heian Palace had two types of the rituals according to how the participants moved in the ritual space; 1) the moving emphasized the north-south axis, 2) the east-west axis dominated. It clearly indicates that the former type was applied in order to show the supremacy of emperor, and that the latter was employed to demonstrate the intimacy between emperor and high-ranking officers. In addition, the Heian Palace placed more importance on east part of the ritual space because even the type 1 assigned the eastern space to higher-ranking officers. Furthermore, the description in publication of the rituals of the type 1 in two ritual books edited after the 9th century reduced, it means that the type 2 gained importance. There must be some reasons why there were two types of the rituals and why the type 1 disappeared by degrees after the 9th century. On the one hand, Japanese learned from the Chinese ritual system in court, especially the type 1. Consequently, it seems that the type 1 was eliminated when emperor started losing political power after the 9th century.
Other Identifiers: GN0699670139
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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