Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/102300
Title: 居斯塔夫卡玉伯特1875至1877年的繪畫及其藝術影響
Gustave Caillebotte’s Paintings in 1875–77 and the Works’ Artistic Reception
Authors: 辛蒂庫絲
Candida Syndikus
詹乃毓
Jan, Nai-Yu
Keywords: 居斯塔夫卡玉伯特
印象派
19世紀巴黎
現代生活
象徵主義
自然主義
分離主義
Gustave Caillebotte
Impressionism
nineteenth-century Paris
la vie moderne
Symbolism
Naturalist
Divisionism
Issue Date: 2015
Abstract: 本研究針對法國十九世紀印象派畫家居斯塔夫˙卡玉伯特(Gustave Caillebotte, 1848–94) 在1870年代的新繪畫風格,及其對於同時代其他歐洲藝術家的影響,來進行研究。本文針對卡玉伯特的三件代表作來分析一1875年的〈刮地板的工人〉(The Floor Scrapers),1876年〈歐洲橋〉(The Pont de l’Europe) 以及1877年〈雨天的巴黎街道〉 (Paris Street; Rainy Day)。此三件作品極具時代性觀點,卡玉伯特以其獨特的風格描繪了在歐仁˙奧斯曼男爵 (Baron Haussmann, 1809–1891)重新規劃之下後的十九世紀巴黎城市風景。首先,為了解卡玉伯特畫作風格及其十九世紀的藝術評價,進行了三件作品的風格分析,並爬梳這些作品,於十九世紀印象派展覽中展出後,所得到的藝術評論。 卡玉伯特的〈刮地板的工人〉,無論在畫作主題或是風格上面,皆有別於同時代的法國印象派畫家。他們的畫作通常以風景為主題,筆觸較為寫意且隨興,例如像克勞˙德莫內 (Claude Monet, 1840–1926) 和卡米耶˙畢沙羅 (Camille Pissarro, 1830–1903);或者像皮耶-奧古斯特˙雷諾瓦 (Pierre-Auguste Renoir, 1841–1919),以中產階級的女性為主要題材。當〈刮地板的工人〉於1876年第一次印象派展覽中亮相時,觀眾們都非常訝異於這個在印象派繪畫中極為少見的題材一都市勞動者,及其不同於其他印象派作品的風格一細緻且寫實的筆觸。卡玉伯特的另外兩件代表作一〈歐洲橋〉及〈雨天的巴黎街道〉,以獨特的視角描繪了十九世紀巴黎的城市生活。卡玉伯特運用了不對稱構圖、多點透視、對場景以及人物的大膽剪裁;比起同時期的主流印象派畫作,這些畫作風格顯得非常獨樹一幟。卡玉伯特的這兩件代表作於1877年第二次印象派展覽展出時,吸引了眾多藝評家的目光,很多人都讚嘆於卡玉伯特大膽、創新的構圖,及其嚴謹細膩的筆觸。除此之外,同時代的一些藝術家們,也被卡玉伯特獨特的構圖及透視法吸引,從中學習一些視覺技法,進而融入自己的作品裡。 為了分析卡玉伯特具有影響力的三件代表作,被視為非典型印象派作品的原因,及探討其他歐洲藝術家受卡玉伯特作品風格影響的情形,我選了以下六位藝術家的一些作品,來與卡玉伯特的畫作進行比較:比利時畫家費爾南˙克諾普夫(Fernand Khnopff, 1858–1921)、詹姆斯˙恩索爾(James Ensor, 1860–1949),挪威畫家愛德華˙孟克(Edvard Munch, 1863–1944)、克里斯蒂安˙克羅格(Christian Krohg, 1852–1925),以及義大利畫家安傑洛˙馬爾貝里(Angelo Morbelli, 1853–1919)、馬力歐迪馬里亞(Mario de Maria, 1852–1924)。在卡玉伯特的相關研究中,上述六位藝術家的某些作品,有時候會被拿來與卡玉伯特的作品,進行構圖及風格方面的比較。 為了闡述並證明以上六位藝術家,確實有受到卡玉伯特三件代表作的啟發,首先我必須證實他們看過或得知卡玉伯特作品的可能性。從這些藝術家的傳記中,可以證實他們皆曾經於十九世紀,印象派畫家(包括卡玉伯特)當紅時,造訪過巴黎。接下來,我將這些藝術家在停留巴黎時或返回家鄉後所創作的某些作品,與卡玉伯特的主要作品做比較,因為這些作品在其構圖或風格上的變化,似乎有受到卡玉伯特的影響。 案例討論從比利時象徵主義畫家克諾普夫的其中一件作品開始,此畫作的構圖,明顯受卡玉伯特〈雨天的巴黎街道〉之影響。接著,將另一位比利時畫家一恩索爾的城市街景,與卡玉伯特的巴黎街景作比較。至於卡玉伯特對挪威畫家的影響,從克羅格的瑞典畫家卡爾˙努德斯特倫(Karl Nordström)肖像畫開始分析,其構圖原型來自卡玉伯特〈奥斯曼大道,陽臺上的男人〉(Man on a Balcony, Boulevard Haussmann)。接著討論孟克的巴黎街景畫及一系列克利斯蒂安娜(奧斯陸)街景,與卡玉伯特巴黎街景的空間表現之相似處。另外還有其著名的〈吶喊〉(The Scream),與卡玉伯特〈歐洲橋〉構圖的關聯性。最後,探討兩位曾於十九世紀晚期造訪巴黎的義大利藝術家—分離派畫家馬爾貝里,以及以描繪月光著名的迪馬里亞。分析前者在〈晚年的詩篇〉 (The Poem of Old Age) 一系列中的幾張畫,與卡玉伯特〈刮地板的工人〉的透視空間之相似性;討論後者的兩張巴黎街景畫與卡玉伯特街景的構圖特色。
This study proposes an analysis of Gustave Caillebotte’s (1848–94) major works in the second half of the 1870s and the works’ artistic receptions by other European artists. For this master thesis, I have chosen Caillebotte’s three major works – The Floor Scrapers of 1875 (Paris, Musée d’Orsay), The Pont de l’Europe of 1876 (Geneva, Musée du Petit Palais), and Paris Street; Rainy Day of 1877 (Art Institute of Chicago) – to discuss the reception of Caillebotte’s art, because these are his most representative and influential works which show unique perspectives towards the cityscapes in nineteenth-century Paris under Baron Haussmann’s (1809–1891) renovation. The survey begins with an analysis of Caillebotte’s three pictures and the discourse on them in contemporary art criticism with the goal to find out which of the paintings’ features were appraised or condemned by contemporary viewers. In The Floor Scrapers, Caillebotte develops a characteristic style concerning both content and form which categorically differ from the artistic goals of his Impressionist colleagues at that time. Many of Caillebotte’s French Impressionist colleagues like to make landscape paintings and render them with loose brushstrokes, such as Claude Monet (1840–1926) and Camille Pissarro (1830–1903), or some other colleagues favor the subjects of bourgeois women, such as Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841–1919). When Floor Scrapers was shown at the first Impressionist Exhibition in 1876, Caillebotte impressed the contemporary audience because this work presents an unusual subject – the urban laborers, and an uncommon Impressionist style with meticulous brushstrokes and smoothly painted surface. Caillebotte’s other two iconic works, The Pont de l’Europe and Paris Street; Rainy Day are unique representations of the city life in Paris. His use of asymmetrical composition, multiple-point perspective, bold cropping of the scene and figures is quite untypical amongst his contemporaries. When presented at the second Impressionist Exhibition in 1877, the two works attracted many critics’ attention; most of them were amazed at Caillebotte’s boldness composition and meticulous brushstrokes. To discuss what makes Caillebotte’s three major works untypical amongst his contemporary Impressionists, and how are the contemporary artists’ responses to Caillebotte’s art, I will compare his method of composition with some works by the following artists: the Belgians Fernand Khnopff (1858–1921) and James Ensor (1860–1949), Norwegians Edvard Munch (1863–1944) and Christian Krohg (1852–1925), the Italians Angelo Morbelli (1853–1919) and Mario de Maria (1852–1924). I choose the six artists because some of their works have occasionally been mentioned in the research on the similarities between Caillebotte’s and his contemporaries’ works. In order to develop and support my argument of the artistic reception of Caillebotte’s works by the six contemporaries, I first verify their possible opportunities to learn Caillebotte’s art in Paris. From their biographies, the six artists did pay visits to Paris in the nineteenth-century when the French Impressionists, including Caillebotte’s, were popular and influential in Europe. In the next step, I discuss the similarities between some paintings produced by the six artists either during or after their visits to Paris and Caillebotte’s three major works, because the compositions and styles appear to be indebted to Caillebotte’s art. First of all, the case study on Belgian artists’ response begins with an analysis of a work by the Belgian Symbolist Fernand Khnopff, as its composition reveals a close association with Caillebotte’s Paris Street; Rainy Day. Another case study is the comparison of James Ensor and Caillebotte’s city scenes. Second, the compositional relationships between two paintings by Norwegian Naturalist painter Christian Krohg and Caillebotte’s canvases are examined. The street scenes by Edvard Munch and Caillebotte will be compared in terms of their compositional similarities. In addition, the similarities and differences between how Caillebotte employs space in The Pont de l’Europe and Munch does in The Scream (Oslo, Nasjonalmuseet) are investigated. Last, the response to Caillebotte’s style by a group of Italian artists, who sojourned in late-nineteenth-century Paris, is considered. The case study begins with a series of paintings named The Poem of Old Age (Il poema della vecchiaia) executed by the Italian Divisionist Angelo Morbelli. Then, several views of Paris depicted by Bolognese painter Mario de Maria are checked.
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